3 Projects, page 1 of 1
The vocabulary of any language comes from different sources as words are frequently borrowed, especially in situations of language contact. English, for example, shares many words with French as a large number of Romance borrowings entered the English language after the Norman Conquest in 1066. However, other languages, such as Dutch and German, have also borrowed substantial numbers of Romance words. When a word is borrowed, its pronunciation is adapted to fit the phonological system of the new language (e.g. 'beef' from Old French 'boef'). This results in instances where the same word is borrowed into different languages but is pronounced differently. In this project, we are investigating the stress patterns of Romance loans in Dutch, English, and German. Some of these loans are pronounced in the same way in all three languages (e.g. 'vendétta') while others show certain differences particularly in vowel quality and stress (e.g. 'crócodile' (E), 'krokod'il' (D), 'Krokod'il' (G)). The project consists of two distinct strands: (i) a historical theoretical study in order to create both a diachronic timeline of borrowings and a synchronic description of patterns of phonological adaptation into the three host languages (ii) a psycholinguistic investigation concerned with the processing of items which differ in their stress patterns across the languages in Dutch and German second-language (L2) learners of English. The historical investigation is concerned with charting the borrowing of Romance loans into Dutch, English, and German and investigating the resulting stress patterns as well as the changes borrowed items may have introduced in the pronunciation systems of the individual languages. While studies on loanwords exist, there is no comprehensive study which provides an overview of borrowings across languages. We will be working with the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) on this part of the project and our findings will be used to add to the information currently available in the OED. The OED does have information on cross-linguistic correspondences but it is not consistent and focuses mostly on inherited words. There are many instances where the information we are planning to gather can only be obtained by consulting several different sources. In the psycholinguistic part of the project, which is, at least in part, based on the historical findings, we are concerned with investigating the effects of divergent pronunciation patterns (e.g. stress and vowel changes) on the language processing of learners of English who have Dutch or German as a native language. Our aim is to ascertain whether words which are pronounced differently in English compared to a learner's native language require greater effort in processing than those where the pronunciation patterns are largely similar. If this is the case, particular focus on these forms in teaching and providing systematic rules (where they exist) to explain the differences may facilitate learning and processing. The overall results obtained from this project will be used to create a digital resource (website/app) which explains the correspondences and differences in pronunciation (going beyond stress patterns of Romance loans) between Dutch, English and German to assist English language learners. When this information is available, it is often presented in highly specialist terms and thus is not intelligible to teachers and learners without historical linguistic knowledge. As all three languages are West Germanic and show a large degree of overlap, there are a number of rule-based historical changes which explain variation that may, at first glance, seem idiosyncratic. If these rules can be simplified and explained in such a way that they can be used in language learning and teaching, this may facilitate a more rapid progression and allow students to apply these rules not just to words they have already learned but also to new material they encounter.
The Complete Works of Evelyn Waugh (CWEW) will revolutionise Waugh studies, and influence twentieth-century literary and cultural studies more broadly, publishing a vast storehouse of historical and literary documentation. CWEW will greatly expand our knowledge of the range and complexity of Waugh's thinking and artistic practice, linking this to the work of his contemporaries 1903-66 in Britain, America and Europe. No other edition of a British novelist has been undertaken on this scale. About 85% of Waugh's letters are unpublished. CWEW will print all Waugh's extant writings and graphic art: novels, biographies, travel writing, shorter fiction, essays, articles, reportage, reviews, letters, diaries, poems, juvenilia, parerga, drawings and designs in 42 volumes. There has never been a scholarly edition of Waugh's work, the best volumes being Penguin's Modern Classics reissues. These, however, fall far short of rigorous scholarly standards. It was not Penguin's remit to finance large-scale textual scholarship and the editors were hampered by commercial restrictions. The historical context is meagre. Over the last thirty years, Waugh scholarship has made huge strides. Very little of this scholarship, however, has informed editions of Waugh's work. CWEW aims to correct that. Its editors can quote extensively and without charge from Waugh copyright material, a privilege never before available and which now unlocks a hoard of literary treasures. The objective is thoroughly to historicize each text, to provide an authoritative repository of primary source material in an edition that will not 'date' and that will become the seminal source of reference for the foreseeable future. Through this, we hope not only to transform Waugh studies but also studies of his literary circle (e.g. John Betjeman, Robert Byron, Henry Green, Graham Greene, the Sitwells, Anthony Powell, and Muriel Spark), and to enhance studies of Architecture, Art History, History, Film, and textual editing. Volumes will, for example, investigate British, American and French Catholicism, the impact of both world wars, class, politics and Modernist aesthetics in the twentieth century. Print publication was contracted in 2009, the project initiated by Alexander Waugh, Waugh's grandson, who curates the massive Evelyn Waugh Archive. OUP and Alexander Waugh will digitize the letters, diaries, essays, articles and reviews in this archive and all copy-texts for a database available to editors through password-protected access from an interactive website which will include: updated bibliographies, blog space for editors, and an open forum for public engagement inviting information on untraced Waugh material and feedback from the project's many public events. These events, launched by a Colloquium (2013) and International Conference (2015), involve our Project Partners: the Bodleian, British, and Brotherton Libraries, the Humanities Research Center (Texas), the University of Milan, the Waugh Estate and OUP. The website, a unique research tool, will expedite research and offer a world-leading forum for Waugh studies. Since 2009, scholarly development has been led by Martin Stannard and David Bradshaw. As Co-Executive Editor (PI) with Prof. Bradshaw (CI), Prof. Stannard will be project manager in collaboration with Alexander Waugh, the General Editor. Publication will be in two tranches: 2016-17, and 2018-22, eleven volumes of Tranche 1 to appear by Easter 2016 to mark the fiftieth anniversary of Waugh's death. The project will fully integrate the career development of a Research Assistant and two doctoral students. All will attend quarterly meetings of the Editorial Board, present annual progress reports to it, and produce conference papers and publications. As crucial figures, they will directly engage with the project's research infrastructure. A dedicated project research area will be created for them in the University of Leicester Library.
Building upon our existing flagship industry-linked EPSRC & MRC CDT in Systems Approaches to Biomedical Science (SABS), the new EPSRC CDT in Sustainable Approaches to Biomedical Science: Responsible and Reproducible Research - SABS:R^3 - will train a further five cohorts, each of 15 students, in cutting-edge systems approaches to biomedical research and, uniquely within the UK, in advanced practices in software engineering. Our renewed goal is to bring about a transformation of the research culture in computational biomedical science. Computational methods are now at the heart of biomedical research. From the simulation of the behaviour of complex systems, through the design and automation of laboratory experiments, to the analysis of both small and large-scale data, well-engineered software has proved capable of transforming biomedical science. Biomedical science is therefore dependent as never before on research software. Industries reliant on this continued innovation in biomedical science play a critical role in the UK economy. The biopharmaceutical and medical technology industrial sectors alone generate an annual turnover of over £63 billion and employ 233,000 scientists and staff. In his foreword to the 2017 Life Sciences Industrial Strategy, Sir John Bell noted that, "The global life sciences industry is expected to reach >$2 trillion in gross value by 2023... there are few, if any, sectors more important to support as part of the industrial strategy." The report identifies the need to provide training in skills in "informatics, computational, mathematical and statistics areas" as being of major concern for the life sciences industry. Over the last 9 years, the existing SABS CDT has been working with its consortium of now 22 industrial and institutional partners to meet these training needs. Over this same period, continued advances in information technology have accelerated the shift in the biomedical research landscape in an increasingly quantitative and predictive direction. As a result, computational and hence software-driven approaches now underpin all aspects of the research pipeline. In spite of this central importance, the development of research software is typically a by-product of the research process, with the research publication being the primary output. Research software is typically not made available to the research community, or even to peer reviewers, and therefore cannot be verified. Vast amounts of research time is lost (usually by PhD students with no formal training in software development) in re-implementing already-existing solutions from the literature. Even if successful, the re-implemented software is again not released to the community, and the cycle repeats. No consideration is made of the huge benefits of model verification, re-use, extension, and maintainability, nor of the implications for the reproducibility of the published research. Progress in biomedical science is thus impeded, with knock-on effects into clinical translation and knowledge transfer into industry. There is therefore an urgent need for a radically different approach. The SABS:R^3 CDT will build on the existing SABS Programme to equip a new generation of biomedical research scientists with not only the knowledge and methods necessary to take a quantitative and interdisciplinary approach, but also with advanced software engineering skills. By embedding this strong focus on sustainable and open computational methods, together with responsible and reproducible approaches, into all aspects of the new programme, our computationally-literate scientists will be equipped to act as ambassadors to bring about a transformation of biomedical research.