In nineteenth-century Europe, political exile began to emerge as a form of mass migration and political commitment among both the “liberal international” and the counter-revolutionary “white international” that developed after the Congress of Vienna. In order to tackle that major shift, the research project will focus on the first half of the century, which was a crucial time for the gradual definition of political exile and asylum, but also for the implementation of policies towards foreign victims of ideological repression. After the Congress of Vienna, the increasing number of dissidents expelled from their home countries for political reasons led to major shifts in the migration policies of Great Britain, France, Belgium, Switzerland, and to a lesser extent of Piedmont-Sardinia and Spain, the main countries providing asylum to such refugees between 1815 and the 1870s. Adopting a comparative and transnational approach, the research project aims at studying the tools elaborated to select and welcome this specific population of foreigners compelled to migration for political reasons. The migrations were triggered by the repression of liberal and radical insurrections (for instance, Italian insurrections of the early 1820s and early 1830s, Polish insurrections in 1830-31, 1846 and 1863, “Communes” of the early 1870s), but also by the independence wars and civil conflicts that burst out in Europe during that time period (the Greek war of Independence in the 1820s, “carlist” wars in Spain between 1833-39 and 1872-76). What were the pioneer states that first welcomed political exiles in nineteenth-century Europe? Can the time lags observed between European host countries be attributed to the uneven construction of their administrative structures, or to ideological, cultural or even religious factors? How did the exiles themselves influence these migration policies, especially thanks to the use of petitions, and more broadly by their multiple forms of political commitment in exile? Finally, what were the reactions and initiatives observed among the civil society in order to welcome foreign exiles and refugees, or on the contrary in order to protest against their presence? These are the main issues that the research project will address. This project will first reconstruct the vocabularies used to describe and thus categorize these exiles and refugees, showing how new categories were elaborated to designate the political migrations’ actors during the nineteenth century. That lexical approach will also be used in order to analyze the legal tools and administrative practices that were thought for exiles and refugees. Another dimension of the research conducted by AsileuropeXIX will highlight the migration controls that affected political exiles at the borders, when these foreigners arrived in the country where they sought asylum: controls at the borders will be studied through administration and police records on the one hand, and through personal archives on the other hand (memoirs, correspondences, autobiographies). The project will also tackle the welcoming policies that were implemented towards foreign refugees, thanks to a history of public policies – ways of selecting, helping them and restricting their movements through space – but also by highlighting the civil societies’ reactions towards that specific foreign immigration. Finally, the last lead that the research group will follow relies on the a posteriori migration controls in nineteenth-century Europe: whereas migration controls at the borders were based on passport controls until the 1860s, the a posteriori migration controls relied on deportation measures but also on incentives given to refugees encouraging them to immigrate to European colonies.
The “COmmunication MEdiation Transfer of Knowledge in Champagne Ardenne_2” (COMETES-CA_2) project is led by the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA) in close synergy with the Technical and Industrial Scientific Culture Center “ACCUSTICA”. This project is a continuation of the COMETES-CA project. It is part of an ambitious strategy for science with and for society, promoting the exchange between the world of research and citizens, participating in the progress and strengthening of the society. The project aims to cover the entire territory of Champagne in order to develop Science and Society relations with a diversified public, as wide as possible. It includes the following three axis: • Axis 1: promotion of research and its challenges to all audiences and in particular in rural areas and/or priority areas of the city, • Axis 2: Training in mediation, communication or scientific approach, • Axis 3: Promoting news and scientific expertise in the media. The project brings together two projects eligible by the ANR (AUBUPAR and EFICACE) in a common framework of actions of communications, mediation and scientific promotion declined during the 36 months of the project. • The actions proposed under Axis 1 aim to spread science to the heart of society, exchange and debate with citizens and create regular meetings between researchers and high school students. We will rely on existing flagship actions such as Classes en Fac, the Cordées de la success or the Fête de la Science. • Training in mediation, communication or the scientific approach carried out in line with 2 will be piloted, directed and supervised by ACCUSTICA staff, capitalizing on the experience acquired over 15 years in the field of scientific culture. active steps, thus mixing theoretical contributions, role-playing, small group work, games, site visits mediation, meetings and exchanges with scientists and the target audience will be privileged. • The writing of popular articles, meetings, exchanges and conferences with the general will make it possible to promote the research results of the AUBUPAR and EFICACE projects.