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CNR

National Research Council
Country: Italy
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1,656 Projects, page 1 of 332
  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101066678
    Funder Contribution: 172,750 EUR
    Partners: CNR

    Cardiometabolic traits and risk factors including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension are the leading causes of death worldwide. These conditions exhibit some degree of sex differences, including differences in incidence or prevalence, age of onset, severity, disease progression, susceptibility, response to treatment and pharmacological adverse events. Unfortunately, the reasons behind this sex dimorphism are largely unknown, hampering the realization of an effective personalized medicine. My project will focus on understanding the genetic and molecular components that differentially impact men and women. I will first carry out sex stratified genome-wide association studies for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity using large population biobanks to evaluate the effects of known-genetic variants within each sex and to identify novel loci that may have been previously undetected. I will then use molecular quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to identify specific gene expression changes and proteins modulated by these variants and that are likely to be involved in sex-specific development of cardiometabolic traits and modulation of risk factors. I will then validate putative causal genes using Mendelian randomization approaches. This will lead to optimize therapeutics and find new drug target to perform equally well in males and females and will open the door to improve personalized and precision medicine in the near future.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 746774
    Overall Budget: 168,277 EURFunder Contribution: 168,277 EUR
    Partners: CNR

    OUTNANO is about developing a new generation of nanophotonic devices by exploiting ultrafast dynamics of electrons driven out-of-equilibrium. Photonic sciences profoundly impact our society, enabling the development of high-technology devices that are currently employed in our daily life: DVD players, LEDs, laser printers, barcode scanners, displays, sensors, optical fibres, medical equipment and many others. Among the future frontiers of photonics, the achievement of ultraviolet lasers, compact white-light sources, and on-the-chip signal processing play a crucial role for several applications, e.g., all-optical computing, spectroscopy, imaging techniques, bio-sensing, cancer treatment, dental surgery, and micro-machining. Extreme exploitation of optical nonlinearities in nanophotonic components is fundamentally important in tackling these challenges, as frequency conversion mechanisms can be enhanced to generate ultraviolet radiation. Besides, optical nonlinearity enables active controlling of light by means of light, a basic requirement for developing all-optical devices. The high field enhancement provided by plasmonic materials and metamaterials is crucial for the full exploitation of nonlinear effects. Currently, the inherent high losses of these materials hamper their efficiency and their application in new-generation photonic devices. OUTNANO aims at tackling these challenges of nanophotonics by using ultrashort optical pulses with time duration of few femtoseconds, which drive the out-of-equilibrium electron plasma in the collisionless regime, where ohmic losses are suppressed. This novel regime enables the development of low-loss plasmonic circuits for on-chip all-optical computing and the engineering of highly nonlinear nanophotonic devices with enhanced efficiencies for generating UV radiation and for achieving ultra-compact white-light sources.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101062863
    Funder Contribution: 172,750 EUR
    Partners: CNR

    We are in an era of demand for new, high-performance and sustainable plastics. The challenge is to counterbalance the actual need of society for disposable devices without compromising the sustainability of the overall production. Within the polymer field, polyolefins account for more than 50% of global plastics demand. However, their main drawback is represented by their hydrophobicity and their poor applicability in blending, adhesion and dyeing due to a lack of functional groups. In this regard, one fundamental challenge is to develop a new strategy that combines polymer synthesis and the incorporation of polar moieties into polyolefins. Within this context, POLYFUN seeks to deliver functional polyolefins by employing a single iron-based catalyst to perform two subsequent catalytic steps in a one-pot strategy. This approach, although being an important tool at the molecular level, has not yet found any application in the polymer field to access materials with intriguing and robust properties in one single process. From a scientific and technological perspective, POLYFUN intends to fabricate functionalized polymers with tunable and unique properties with an innovative approach in the field. This project is highly interdisciplinary, involving different research areas such as organic chemistry, catalysis, and material science. As such, it is envisioned that the development of this new strategy can generate breakthrough scientific papers, valuable discoveries and/or potential patents. This fellowship brings a two-fold transfer of knowledge: advanced techniques in organic chemistry to the host institution and material chemistry to the fellow. Overall, the project’s multidisciplinarity and intersectoral nature will broaden the fellow’s competencies and will place her in a competitive position for her next career move.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 796291
    Overall Budget: 168,277 EURFunder Contribution: 168,277 EUR
    Partners: CNR

    The use of science for the conservation of cultural heritage is nowadays widespread. Many studies have been conducted on artworks made of single materials (e.g. paintings, stones, metals). However, a novel research field is rising among European conservation scientists: the characterisation and conservation of composite artefacts. This project will be focused on composite artworks made of painted metal. Indeed, the particular use of metals as “canvas” has never been investigated even though many masterpieces were created using this technique. Known are the degradation mechanisms occurring to metal artefacts as well as to paints as single materials. However, rare studies about painted metals and paint-metal interactions have been undertaken so far. Indeed, there is an extended lack of knowledge about the degradation processes that occur on such artefacts and about the conservation methodology to adopt. The project INTERFACE (paINTed mEtal aRteFActs ConsErvation) aims to fill this lack of scientific information, having two main objectives: 1. The characterisation of the degradation mechanisms, with particular attention to the processes occurring at the paint-metal interface; 2. The development of a conservation methodology to preserve both paint film and metal substrate. In particular, the decay mechanisms and the conservation approaches of copper and iron/low carbon steel as substrates decorated with linseed oil paints and lacquers will be investigated. The first phase of the project will focus its attention on the permeation of the paint film, on the metal corrosion processes (e.g. differential aeration, cathodic delamination) and on the interaction between the binder fatty acids and the metal substrate at their interface. For the first time the interface area between the paint film and the metallic support will be characterized at micro and nano-scale. The second phase will be devoted to the development of a conservation methodology for painted metal artworks.