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  • Authors: Tasovac, Toma; Edmond, Jennifer; Garnett, Vicky; Thorpe, Deborah;

    • To the extent that is has been theorised, work on DH pedagogy has tended to be very strongly tied to the classroom experience. A classroom experience, however, exists within a particular social and institutional framework (students seeking knowledge, experience or qualification from instructors who master a specific body of knowledge) which is quite different from the operational and distributed nature of Research Infrastructures such as DARIAH.• Research infrastructures seldom possess the kinds of specialised procedures, staff, resources and expertise to deliver formal educational programmes, but the strength of RI’s lies in the provision of and reflection upon the experience of acculturation and professionalization in “real” cross-institutional and often cross-cultural projects in which peer learning, skills transfers and network building are a rule rather than an exception.• Research Infrastructures such as DARIAH have a specific role to play in the European educational landscape by complementing rather than replacing the pedagogical models prevalent in HEIs today.• RI’s such as DARIAH should focus not only on DH or even on a discipline in which a student or researcher seeks to use DH methodologies, but also on highlighting how these practices engage interdependent communities of practice with intersecting concerns.• DARIAH should intensify effort to position itself as pedagogically relevant beyond the individual humanities disciplines in terms of what it can contribute to the development and dissemination of early-career researchers’ transferable skills and competences as identified by the Eurodoc 2018 Report.• DARIAH should establish an active educational partnership network in order to validate a new approach to the skills needs of humanities students and researchers, looking beyond the frame of what is currently available in the context of formal educational programmes.• DARIAH should develop a curricular model and, if possible, an internship program, to enable fluid exchange of knowledge and students between university programmes and the applied contexts of the research infrastructure.• DARIAH should continue to create and maintain essential filtering and contextualising layers for training materials, which are now available throughDARIAH-Campus, in order to coordinate and enhance open educational resources with other stakeholders in the field.• DARIAH should aim to apply and test its learning resources in different HE contexts in order to profit from unforeseen synergies and unexpected outcomes such as, for instance, the initiative to publish young researchers’ data papers using the DARIAH-Campus Event Capture Template, which emerged out of the DESIR Workshop at the University of Neuchâtel.• Building on currently identified needs, DARIAH should develop foresight models to predict future needs within the Higher Education sector.

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  • Authors: Uetani, Toshinori; Greengrass, Mark;

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  • Authors: Marchand, Manon; Amodeo, Stefania; Allen, Mark;

    Published computational notebooks are rarely reproducible, mainly because software development is not an easy and well documented task for non professional developers. In this communication we provide a comprehensive list of re-usable workflows and good practice tips that we hope can help maintainers of repositories of computational notebooks. This framework is illustrated in a re-usable demonstration repository developed within the ESCAPE and EOSC projects.

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  • Authors: Romary, Laurent; Puren, Marie;

    International audience; Le projet européen Iperion regroupe un ensemble d'acteurs européens offrant des services d'infrastructure pour l'étude du patrimoine matériel sous la forme d'équipements fixes ou mobiles. Ces différents services génèrent potentiellement de grandes quantités de données qu'il est nécessaire de gérer et documenter. En particulier, il semble utile de travailler à la constitution d'un réservoir de telles données qui soit consultable par une large communauté de chercheurs, notamment en sciences humaines. On peut ainsi penser au rôle que peuvent jouer des analyses précises d'une oeuvre pour un historien des arts qui souhaite étudier l'évolution de la technique d'un peintre par exemple. La mise en place d'une telle infrastructure de données réutilisables dans le domaine du patrimoine matériel se heurte cependant à plusieurs difficultés que nous essayons de réduire au sein du projet Iperion. Tout d'abord, il n'est pas nécessairement dans la culture du déploiement des équipements eux-mêmes d'envisager une réutilisation large des données. Le scénario de base est souvent celui d'un chercheur qui va conduire une analyse ciblée d'un objet patrimonial, pour ensuite exploiter lui-même les résultats correspondants et passer à l'analyse suivante, sans se préoccuper d'une réutilisation des données produites. Ensuite, du point de vue des formats de données, on observe l'absence de réels standards de représentation communs aux différents types d'équipements. On se retrouve ainsi à devoir gérer des données propriétaires qui dépendent principalement des constructeurs des équipements. Enfin, se posele problème complexe des droits d'utilisation qui combinent un ensemble de difficultés liées au statut des oeuvres elles-mêmes, aux règles régissant l'équipement, mais aussi à la volonté de partage du chercheur qui a effectué le recueil initial des données. Dans ce cadre, notre objectif est de mettre en place une démarche d'analyse de l'état des lieux et de proposition de principes communs de gestion des données au sein du projet. Il s'agirait ainsi de préfigurer une charte de gestion des données applicable à la future infrastructure européenne E-RIHS, en collaboration avec l'infrastructure numérique DARIAH en sciences humaines. Nous avons ainsi recueilli les réponses des différents partenaires du projet concernant à la fois les modes de gestion des équipements, et le statut des jeux de données disponibles. La variété des réponses obtenues montre déjà que seules des recommandations génériques pourront être produites à l'échelle européenne, et nous esquisserons quelques propositions dans ce sens. Laurent Romary est directeur de recherche à Inria où il mène des recherches dans le domaine des humanités numériques et plus particulièrement sur la modélisation et la représentation de données en sciences humaines et sociales. Depuis plusieurs années, il a contribué à la définition des politiques d'information scientifique du CNRS, de la société Max Planck et d'Inria, où il a contribué notamment à la définition d'une obligation de dépôt en archives ouvertes dans HAL. Il a aussi participé de longue date à la définition et à l'évolution des directives de la TEI (Text Encoding Initiative), notamment comme membre, mais aussi comme président du conseil technique de la TEI, et préside le comité 37 de l'ISO (Organisation international de normalisation). Il dirige l'infrastructure Européenne DARIAH pour le développement de méthodes numériques en sciences humaines et sociales. https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/laurentromary

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Calore, Francesca; Carenza, Pierluca; Eckner, Christopher; Giannotti, Maurizio; +3 Authors

    A future Galactic Supernova (SN) explosion can lead to a gamma-ray signal induced by ultralight Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) thermally produced in the SN core and converted into high-energy photons in the Galactic magnetic field. The detection of such a signal is in the reach of the Large Area Telescope aboard the \emph{Fermi} Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The observation of gamma-ray emission from a future SN has a sensitivity to $g_{a\gamma}\gtrsim 4\times 10^{-13}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for a SN at fiducial distance of $10$ kpc and would allow us to reconstruct the ALP-photon coupling within a factor of $\sim2$, mainly due to the uncertainties on the modeling of the Galactic magnetic field. Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2023
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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  • Authors: Engelhardt, Claudia; Leone, Claudio; Larrousse, Nicolas; Montoliu, Delphine; +5 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Larrousse, Nicolas; Gray, Edward J.; Concordia, Cesare;

    If citation is a common practice for publications, it is relatively new for data especially in SSH. This paper will present the work carried out during the SSHOC project about data citation in general and more precisely how to make them actionable. The metaphor of a travel journal of an expedition seemed appropriate to us to present this work carried out during the SSHOC project. The first part was to study this terra incognita by making an inventory of citation practices (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3595965). To summarize, we discovered that in the research communities we investigated, practices were seldom standardized and were very diverse, generally producing citations that could not be processed by machines: in other words they were not “actionable”. This led us to develop a sort of guide necessary to journey through this new, uncharted territory in the form of a set of recommendations ( https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5361717) to build citations in SSH. So as not to reinvent the wheel, we based these recommendations on existing principles created by Force11 ( https://doi.org/10.25490/a97f-egyk) by adapting them to the specific characteristics of the SSH data. These recommendations were validated by a committee of experts from different backgrounds and structures (RDA participants, CODATA director, OpenAire Engineers etc.) during a round table (https://www.sshopencloud.eu/news/roundtable-experts-data-citation) and in a parallel review process. Then we decided to analyze the resources available in this new territory, that is, the repositories that are so crucial to be able to cite data. We carried out an analysis of 85 repositories against 7 quality criteria based on the recommendations which ensure continuity with the work mentioned above: PID from “Unique Identification & Persistence” Landing page from “Access” Structured metadata from “Importance & Credit and Attribution” Cite as from “Evidence, Specificity & Verifiability” Versioning from “Specificity and Verifiability” Standardized vocabularies from “Interoperability and Flexibility” Links to publications from “Importance” The results of this survey (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5603306) are encouraging - even if there is room for improvement, particularly in the use of Persistent Identifiers. Importantly, the presence of a landing page in almost all cases allowed us to build up a test sample made up of a very diverse dataset from those repositories for which we want to build standardized and actionable citations. In parallel we developed a tool in order to “harvest” the resources found in this new land so as to better understand them and also be able to explain them to others. We developed a prototype composed of three components: a harvester which grabs information about a dataset and normalizes it an API to disseminate the metadata of the citation thereby making it actionable a citation viewer for human purposes For the first iteration to populate this prototype, we used the dataset collected during our survey of repositories and we are going to gradually add more datasets from various sources. This prototype is primarily designed to implement what we called “actionability” to a citation and provide a ready-to-use citation in various citation formats. Starting from the PID of a dataset, the prototype attempts to aggregate metadata from different sources: the repository of the dataset, the PID Registration Agency and a number of Knowledge Graphs. For instance, while metadata associated with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) are limited and those provided by a handle are even more scarce, it is possible to get more information from a landing page and thus enrich the citation. We also used another indirect approach to gather additional information by using a registry of repositories (RE3Data https://www.re3data.org/) which provides, among other things, information on the available APIs available for a specific repository. Thus the prototype can give a unified view of information about datasets coming from different sources. For researchers, it thus avoids cumbersome work on how to cite a dataset or get information about its provenance. In return, it makes a researcher aware of the importance of properly documenting a dataset and depositing it in a “good” repository. This paper will present in greater detail what we learned at each step of this expedition and how a research project can take advantage of a good citation system to enhance the visibility of the output. We will also introduce the potential uses based on the information provided by the prototype such as the possibility of associating a specific tool to process data or the use of this information as a base to build data papers.

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  • Authors: Wissik, Tanja; Edmond, Jennifer; Fischer, Frank; de Jong, Franciska; +5 Authors

    The digital humanities (DH) enrich the traditional fields of the humanities with new practices, approaches and methods. Since the turn of the millennium, the necessary skills to realise these new possibilities have been taught in summer schools, workshops and other alternative formats. In the meantime, a growing number of Bachelor's and Master's programmes in digital humanities have been launched worldwide. The DH Course Registry, which is the focus of this article, was created to provide an overview of the growing range of courses on offer worldwide. Its mission is to gather the rich offerings of different courses and to provide an up-to-date picture of the teaching and training opportunities in the field of DH. The article provides a general introduction to this emerging area of research and introduces the two European infrastructures CLARIN and DARIAH, which jointly operate the DH Course Registry. A short history of the Registry is accompanied by a description of the data model and the data curation workflow. Current data, available through the API of the Registry, is evaluated to quantitatively map the international landscape of DH teaching.Preprint of a publication for LibraryTribune (China) (accepted)

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  • Authors: Buddenbohm, Stefan; de Jong, Maaike; Priddy, Mike; Moranville, Yoann; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: da Silva, Filipe Guimarães; Jorge, Maria do Rosário; Castaño, Inês; Fernandes, João; +1 Authors

    The DESIR Winter School "Shaping new approaches to data management in arts and humanities" took place in Lisbon on 10-13 December 2019. The event was hosted by NOVA FCSH University facilities and was organised in the framework of the Horizon 2020 funded project DESIR (DARIAH ERIC Sustainability Refined). It aimed at gathering PhD students, arts and humanities scholars from all career stages and research managers interested in the issues raised by sustainable practices to open up data in the arts and humanities. The event was a joint organisation between DARIAH and NOVA FCSH. As such, it brought together the collaboration of national and European experts in the data management field.Sharing knowledge, research outputs and other scholarly resources in ways that are tuned for long-term availability and maximal use and reuse are recognized as essential practices but also key challenges for arts and humanities research. In the last couple of years, this need has also been recognized in a strong political drive in the European Union giving rise to support structures but also policy imperatives for research data management. As a result, Research data management emerged to be a new field of expertise to explore and establish in all range of disciplines.The fact that the concept of data in the arts and humanities domain is far from being a straightforward one adds further complexities to the implementation of such policies in the arts and humanities domain. To meaningfully address the real data needs of the diverse communities of arts and humanities scholars in terms of skills, infrastructure and best practices, we need to keep a reflexive and open exchange about the function of data inspecific research questions and fields of enquiry.The DESIR Winter School provided a unique opportunity for arts and humanities scholars as well as for librarians and research managers to learn about how to maximize the potential of their scholarly resources and to take practical steps in opening up their research in ethically and legally responsible ways. To this end, the DESIR Winter School covered a wide selection of topics ranging from the optimal implementation of FAIR data in the arts and humanities, issues around ethics, Intellectual Property Rights and licensing, data and software citation practices, open research notebooks and innovative publishing practices in the arts and humanities.The main goals of the Winter School were to:• Introduce scientific and academic communities in the arts and humanities to the principles and practices of responsible research and Open Science;• Strengthen the skills of the arts and humanities communities in research data management, curation, sharing, preservation and reuse;• Enable R&D and Higher Education institutions to develop research data strategies and policies;• Foster national and international collaboration amongst the diverse research communities in the arts and humanities;• Introduce participants to innovative publishing practices in the arts and humanities, such as data journals, overlay journals etc.

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  • Authors: Tasovac, Toma; Edmond, Jennifer; Garnett, Vicky; Thorpe, Deborah;

    • To the extent that is has been theorised, work on DH pedagogy has tended to be very strongly tied to the classroom experience. A classroom experience, however, exists within a particular social and institutional framework (students seeking knowledge, experience or qualification from instructors who master a specific body of knowledge) which is quite different from the operational and distributed nature of Research Infrastructures such as DARIAH.• Research infrastructures seldom possess the kinds of specialised procedures, staff, resources and expertise to deliver formal educational programmes, but the strength of RI’s lies in the provision of and reflection upon the experience of acculturation and professionalization in “real” cross-institutional and often cross-cultural projects in which peer learning, skills transfers and network building are a rule rather than an exception.• Research Infrastructures such as DARIAH have a specific role to play in the European educational landscape by complementing rather than replacing the pedagogical models prevalent in HEIs today.• RI’s such as DARIAH should focus not only on DH or even on a discipline in which a student or researcher seeks to use DH methodologies, but also on highlighting how these practices engage interdependent communities of practice with intersecting concerns.• DARIAH should intensify effort to position itself as pedagogically relevant beyond the individual humanities disciplines in terms of what it can contribute to the development and dissemination of early-career researchers’ transferable skills and competences as identified by the Eurodoc 2018 Report.• DARIAH should establish an active educational partnership network in order to validate a new approach to the skills needs of humanities students and researchers, looking beyond the frame of what is currently available in the context of formal educational programmes.• DARIAH should develop a curricular model and, if possible, an internship program, to enable fluid exchange of knowledge and students between university programmes and the applied contexts of the research infrastructure.• DARIAH should continue to create and maintain essential filtering and contextualising layers for training materials, which are now available throughDARIAH-Campus, in order to coordinate and enhance open educational resources with other stakeholders in the field.• DARIAH should aim to apply and test its learning resources in different HE contexts in order to profit from unforeseen synergies and unexpected outcomes such as, for instance, the initiative to publish young researchers’ data papers using the DARIAH-Campus Event Capture Template, which emerged out of the DESIR Workshop at the University of Neuchâtel.• Building on currently identified needs, DARIAH should develop foresight models to predict future needs within the Higher Education sector.

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  • Authors: Uetani, Toshinori; Greengrass, Mark;

    International audience

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  • Authors: Marchand, Manon; Amodeo, Stefania; Allen, Mark;

    Published computational notebooks are rarely reproducible, mainly because software development is not an easy and well documented task for non professional developers. In this communication we provide a comprehensive list of re-usable workflows and good practice tips that we hope can help maintainers of repositories of computational notebooks. This framework is illustrated in a re-usable demonstration repository developed within the ESCAPE and EOSC projects.

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  • Authors: Romary, Laurent; Puren, Marie;

    International audience; Le projet européen Iperion regroupe un ensemble d'acteurs européens offrant des services d'infrastructure pour l'étude du patrimoine matériel sous la forme d'équipements fixes ou mobiles. Ces différents services génèrent potentiellement de grandes quantités de données qu'il est nécessaire de gérer et documenter. En particulier, il semble utile de travailler à la constitution d'un réservoir de telles données qui soit consultable par une large communauté de chercheurs, notamment en sciences humaines. On peut ainsi penser au rôle que peuvent jouer des analyses précises d'une oeuvre pour un historien des arts qui souhaite étudier l'évolution de la technique d'un peintre par exemple. La mise en place d'une telle infrastructure de données réutilisables dans le domaine du patrimoine matériel se heurte cependant à plusieurs difficultés que nous essayons de réduire au sein du projet Iperion. Tout d'abord, il n'est pas nécessairement dans la culture du déploiement des équipements eux-mêmes d'envisager une réutilisation large des données. Le scénario de base est souvent celui d'un chercheur qui va conduire une analyse ciblée d'un objet patrimonial, pour ensuite exploiter lui-même les résultats correspondants et passer à l'analyse suivante, sans se préoccuper d'une réutilisation des données produites. Ensuite, du point de vue des formats de données, on observe l'absence de réels standards de représentation communs aux différents types d'équipements. On se retrouve ainsi à devoir gérer des données propriétaires qui dépendent principalement des constructeurs des équipements. Enfin, se posele problème complexe des droits d'utilisation qui combinent un ensemble de difficultés liées au statut des oeuvres elles-mêmes, aux règles régissant l'équipement, mais aussi à la volonté de partage du chercheur qui a effectué le recueil initial des données. Dans ce cadre, notre objectif est de mettre en place une démarche d'analyse de l'état des lieux et de proposition de principes communs de gestion des données au sein du projet. Il s'agirait ainsi de préfigurer une charte de gestion des données applicable à la future infrastructure européenne E-RIHS, en collaboration avec l'infrastructure numérique DARIAH en sciences humaines. Nous avons ainsi recueilli les réponses des différents partenaires du projet concernant à la fois les modes de gestion des équipements, et le statut des jeux de données disponibles. La variété des réponses obtenues montre déjà que seules des recommandations génériques pourront être produites à l'échelle européenne, et nous esquisserons quelques propositions dans ce sens. Laurent Romary est directeur de recherche à Inria où il mène des recherches dans le domaine des humanités numériques et plus particulièrement sur la modélisation et la représentation de données en sciences humaines et sociales. Depuis plusieurs années, il a contribué à la définition des politiques d'information scientifique du CNRS, de la société Max Planck et d'Inria, où il a contribué notamment à la définition d'une obligation de dépôt en archives ouvertes dans HAL. Il a aussi participé de longue date à la définition et à l'évolution des directives de la TEI (Text Encoding Initiative), notamment comme membre, mais aussi comme président du conseil technique de la TEI, et préside le comité 37 de l'ISO (Organisation international de normalisation). Il dirige l'infrastructure Européenne DARIAH pour le développement de méthodes numériques en sciences humaines et sociales. https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/laurentromary

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    Authors: Calore, Francesca; Carenza, Pierluca; Eckner, Christopher; Giannotti, Maurizio; +3 Authors

    A future Galactic Supernova (SN) explosion can lead to a gamma-ray signal induced by ultralight Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) thermally produced in the SN core and converted into high-energy photons in the Galactic magnetic field. The detection of such a signal is in the reach of the Large Area Telescope aboard the \emph{Fermi} Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The observation of gamma-ray emission from a future SN has a sensitivity to $g_{a\gamma}\gtrsim 4\times 10^{-13}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for a SN at fiducial distance of $10$ kpc and would allow us to reconstruct the ALP-photon coupling within a factor of $\sim2$, mainly due to the uncertainties on the modeling of the Galactic magnetic field. Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2023
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  • Authors: Engelhardt, Claudia; Leone, Claudio; Larrousse, Nicolas; Montoliu, Delphine; +5 Authors
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    Authors: Larrousse, Nicolas; Gray, Edward J.; Concordia, Cesare;

    If citation is a common practice for publications, it is relatively new for data especially in SSH. This paper will present the work carried out during the SSHOC project about data citation in general and more precisely how to make them actionable. The metaphor of a travel journal of an expedition seemed appropriate to us to present this work carried out during the SSHOC project. The first part was to study this terra incognita by making an inventory of citation practices (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3595965). To summarize, we discovered that in the research communities we investigated, practices were seldom standardized and were very diverse, generally producing citations that could not be processed by machines: in other words they were not “actionable”. This led us to develop a sort of guide necessary to journey through this new, uncharted territory in the form of a set of recommendations ( https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5361717) to build citations in SSH. So as not to reinvent the wheel, we based these recommendations on existing principles created by Force11 ( https://doi.org/10.25490/a97f-egyk) by adapting them to the specific characteristics of the SSH data. These recommendations were validated by a committee of experts from different backgrounds and structures (RDA participants, CODATA director, OpenAire Engineers etc.) during a round table (https://www.sshopencloud.eu/news/roundtable-experts-data-citation) and in a parallel review process. Then we decided to analyze the resources available in this new territory, that is, the repositories that are so crucial to be able to cite data. We carried out an analysis of 85 repositories against 7 quality criteria based on the recommendations which ensure continuity with the work mentioned above: PID from “Unique Identification & Persistence” Landing page from “Access” Structured metadata from “Importance & Credit and Attribution” Cite as from “Evidence, Specificity & Verifiability” Versioning from “Specificity and Verifiability” Standardized vocabularies from “Interoperability and Flexibility” Links to publications from “Importance” The results of this survey (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5603306) are encouraging - even if there is room for improvement, particularly in the use of Persistent Identifiers. Importantly, the presence of a landing page in almost all cases allowed us to build up a test sample made up of a very diverse dataset from those repositories for which we want to build standardized and actionable citations. In parallel we developed a tool in order to “harvest” the resources found in this new land so as to better understand them and also be able to explain them to others. We developed a prototype composed of three components: a harvester which grabs information about a dataset and normalizes it an API to disseminate the metadata of the citation thereby making it actionable a citation viewer for human purposes For the first iteration to populate this prototype, we used the dataset collected during our survey of repositories and we are going to gradually add more datasets from various sources. This prototype is primarily designed to implement what we called “actionability” to a citation and provide a ready-to-use citation in various citation formats. Starting from the PID of a dataset, the prototype attempts to aggregate metadata from different sources: the repository of the dataset, the PID Registration Agency and a number of Knowledge Graphs. For instance, while metadata associated with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) are limited and those provided by a handle are even more scarce, it is possible to get more information from a landing page and thus enrich the citation. We also used another indirect approach to gather additional information by using a registry of repositories (RE3Data https://www.re3data.org/) which provides, among other things, information on the available APIs available for a specific repository. Thus the prototype can give a unified view of information about datasets coming from different sources. For researchers, it thus avoids cumbersome work on how to cite a dataset or get information about its provenance. In return, it makes a researcher aware of the importance of properly documenting a dataset and depositing it in a “good” repository. This paper will present in greater detail what we learned at each step of this expedition and how a research project can take advantage of a good citation system to enhance the visibility of the output. We will also introduce the potential uses based on the information provided by the prototype such as the possibility of associating a specific tool to process data or the use of this information as a base to build data papers.

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