Professionally edited open access online encyclopaedias enable a systemic and reliable orientation within the ever-increasing amount of data and information on the Internet. Providing access to scientifically verified information, they represent an important part of the research and didactic infrastructure. This paper demonstrates the activities of Croatia’s Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography aimed at exploring the new encyclopaedic concept in the digital age. The Institute’s digital transformation is shown, which involves the digitisation and online publishing of archival editions, publishing of the permanently updated online general encyclopaedia, and the transformation of specialised encyclopedias to the encyclopaedic portals. Encyclopaedic portals could represent a new concept of encyclopaedias in the digital realm by serving as platforms for data networking and sharing, a sort of ‘junction points’ that connect diverse digital content on a specific topic. Institute’s publicly available repository of encyclopaedic knowledge enables the linking to the digital data and collections of other research and cultural institutions; therefore the collaborative projects aimed at reinforcing digital research and cultural infrastructure will be described. Thanks to the properties of the digital media and increasing connectivity, a closer collaboration Towards a New Concept of Open Access Online Encyclopaedia : A Case Study from... between professionally edited online encyclopaedias across Europe (and beyond) is enabled. This paper elaborates a range of initiatives seeking to build connections across individual European and North American national encyclopaedias, focusing on the role that Croatian encyclopaedistics plays in this endeavour.
We study a series of new energy sources of the Gaussian energy group SU(6), SU(12), SU(24), ….etc. called intelligences which created consciousness and which are responsible for the creation of everything of this universe. The effective quantity and quality of the consciousness of the earth-like planet where living elements were found depends on environment and place of position within the galaxy or cluster or super cluster etc. & mechanical structure of the planet. The said energy sources created consciousness within the living cell and also controlled the whole universe with the symmetry breaking of the energy group SU(11) ( SU(6) SU(5) U(1)); SU(23); SU(47);…… etc.). In the living body, generally consciousness controlled by the self gravitational force of the energy group SU(6) and plays with biological revolution. But consciousness level of any living body including human group and also inanimate objects is particularly controlled by SU(12), SU(24), ….etc. We examine the quantum measurement, using the Wheeler DeWitt wave equation over the complex space-time R + iRI of (4+D) dimensions, where D is an extra dimensions. We know that the quantum super-positions will continually be reaching the Di�� si-Penrose (DP) threshold for Objective Reduction in non- biological settings as well as in biological ones, and usually take place in the purely random environment of a quantum system under measurement through the symmetry breaking of the Generalized Gaussian Energy Group from infinity i.e. from Big-Rip singularity when RI →∞. I. Introduction: Masao Ito wrote that it may be take another half century to bring psychology into the field of neuroscience. This statement reflects the difficulty of extending knowledge about the pivotal role of the cerebellum from the domain of motor control to the cognitive domain. The shift of information processing from divergence to convergence in cerebella micro-complexes (Ito) parallels the shift from coherence to de-coherence in quantum information processing (LIoyd). Consciousness defines our existence: It was proposed by Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff in the mid of 1990"s that consciousness depends on biologically "orchestrated" quantum computations in collections of microtubules within brain neurons, that these quantum computations correlate with and regulate neuronal activity, and that the continuous Schro dinger evolution of each quantum computation terminates in accordance with the specific Dio΄si − Penrose(DP) scheme of "Objective Reduction" of the quantum state (OR). This orchestrated OR activity (Orch OR) is taken to result in a moment of conscious awareness and / or choice. This particular (DP) from of OR is taken to be a quantum-gravity process related to the fundamentals of space-time geometry with complex scale factor R+ iRI in the large scale of the universe, where R is the 4-dimensional Einstein"s universe and iRI (= a), the internal space-time of the extra-dimension "D", which may be compared with the Kaluza-Klein cosmology. Hence solving the WDW equation of the wave function instead of Shro dingers wave equation, we get a remarkable solutions of the wave function of the variable RI (where RI = − R 2 ) in the tachyonic and pseudo-tachyonic universe, which assume as the source of intelligence or consciousness in the universe starting from Big-Rip singularity i.e. from the infinite space-time. Again Orch OR suggests a connection between brain bio-molecular processes and fine scale structure of the universe. There were three general assumption regarding the origin and place of consciousness in the universe have been commonly expressed as 1). Consciousness is not an independent quality but arose as a natural evolutionary consequence of the biological adaptation of brain and nervous system. 2). Consciousness is a quality that has always been in the universe. 3). Precursors of consciousness have always been in the universe; biology evolved a mechanism to convert conscious precursors to actual consciousness. The quantum cosmology explain an appropriate quantum mechanical description of the universe, which was introduced and developed by DeWitt. In quantum cosmology the universe, as a whole is treated quantum mechanically and is described by a single wave function, Ψ(hij , Φ) defined on a manifold (super spaces) of all possible three geometries and all mater field configurations. The wave function Ψ(hij , Φ) has no explicit time dependence due to the fact that there is no real time parameter external to the Einsteins universe. Therefore, there is no Shro dingers wave equation but the operator version of the Hamiltonian constraint of the Dirac canonical quantization procedure, namely vanishing of the variation of the Einstein-Hilbert action S with respect to the arbitrary lapse function N. Thus H = δS δN = 0, which is written as H Ψ(hij , Φ) = 0. This equation is known as the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation. The goal of quantum cosmology by solving the WDW equation over
International audience; Since the end of the 1980s the historiographical context has changed considerably. Over the course of the last ten years, we have reached the “digital age” and computers as well as resources available via the Internet have become indispensable tools for all researchers. Be it for the stage of documentation or for actual writing, we are now living and working in a context where historians can no longer completely refuse all IT tools. As long as there are no solid, durable, large-scale training efforts to equip all historians with the skills to use the new and old IT tools, their potential is necessarily limited. While there have been studies on “researchers” in general and also on political scientists in particular, there has, to our knowledge, been no scientific study which would allow us to reach conclusions on the use of IT tools and digital resources by French historians. It is thus difficult to reach conclusions on a larger scale and we have decided to base our analysis on our own experience in order to consider what could be the transformations of the historian’s craft in the digital age. We will thus proceed first to a series of conclusions based on our activities in mediation (teaching and blogging), before proposing a typology of the principal evolutions. We will conclude with a certain number of propositions as far as training of historians is concerned.; Dalla fine degli anni ’80, il contesto storiografico è mutato in maniera considerevole. Nel corso degli ultimi dieci anni, siamo entrati nell’“era digitale” e i computer – così come le risorse disponibili attraverso la rete Internet – sono diventati strumenti indispensabili per tutti i ricercatori. Sia per la fase di raccolta della documentazione sia per la stesura vera e propria dei resoconti, viviamo e lavoriamo oramai in un contesto in cui gli storici non possono più permettersi di rinunciare completamente a tutte le risorse informatiche; ma fino a quando non saranno profusi sforzi di formazione robusti, durevoli e ad ampio raggio per dotare tutti gli storici delle abilità necessarie ad utilizzare gli strumenti informatici vecchi e nuovi, il loro potenziale sarà necessariamente limitato. Mentre sono apparsi studi su alcuni “ricercatori” in generale e anche su scienziati politici in particolare, non esistono – a nostra conoscenza – contributi di livello scientifico che ci permettano di trarre conclusioni sull’utilizzo degli strumenti informatici e delle risorse digitali da parte degli storici francesi: così, di fronte alla difficoltà di giungere a definizioni su larga scala, abbiamo deciso di basare la presente analisi sulla nostra personale esperienza, in maniera tale da prendere in esame quali trasformazioni potrebbero intervenire nel mestiere dello storico dell’era digitale. Procederemo quindi, in prima istanza, con una serie di valutazioni fondate sulle nostre attività di mediazione (insegnamento e pratica come bloggers), prima di proporre una definizione delle principali evoluzioni; concluderemo poi con un certo numero di considerazioni a proposito di quanto la formazione dello storico sia coinvolta in questo processo.
Publisher: Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche
The amount of research data is growing constantly, due to new technology with new potentials for collecting and analysing both digital data and research objects. This growth creates a demand for a coherent IT-infrastructure. Such an infrastructure must be able to provide facilities for storage, preservation and a more open access to data in order to fulfil the demands from the researchers themselves, the research councils and research foundations.This paper presents the findings of a research project carried out under the auspices of DEFF (Danmarks Elektroniske Fag- og Forskningsbibliotek - Denmark’s Electronic research Library)[i] to analyse how the Danish universities store, preserve and provide access to research data. It shows that they do not have a common IT-infrastructure for research data management. This paper describes the various paths chosen by individual universities and research institutions, and the background for their strategies of research data management. Among the main reasons for the uneven practices are the lack of a national policy in this field, the different scientific traditions and cultures and the differences in the use and organization of IT-services.This development contains several perspectives that are of particular relevance to research libraries. As they already curate digital collections and are active in establishing web archives, the research libraries become involved in research and dissemination of knowledge in new ways. This paper gives examples of how The State and University Library’s services facilitate research data management with special regard to digitization of research objects, storage, preservation and sharing of research data.This paper concludes that the experience and skills of research libraries make the libraries important partners in a research data management infrastructure.
International audience; The National Library Ivan Vazov in Plovdiv is the second largest library in Bulgaria. It serves asthe second national legal depository of Bulgarian printed works. In addition, it has contributedsignificantly to the preservation and the digital accessibility of the national cultural andhistorical heritage. This article offers an overview of the library’s history and currentdevelopments in the field of automation and digitization.
AbstractTropical peatlands are currently being rapidly cleared and drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations, which threatens their globally significant carbon sequestration capacity. Large-scale land conversion of tropical peatlands is important in the context of greenhouse gas emission factors and sustainable land management. At present, quantification of carbon dioxide losses from tropical peatlands is limited by our understanding of the relative contribution of heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration to net peat surface CO2 emissions. In this study we separated heterotrophic and autotrophic components of peat CO2 losses from two oil palm plantations (one established in ‘2000’ and the other in 1978, then replanted in ‘2006’) using chamber-based emissions sampling along a transect from the rooting to non-rooting zones on a peatland in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia over the course of 3 months (June–August, 2014). Collar CO2 measurements were compared with soil temperature and moisture at site and also accompanied by depth profiles assessing peat C and bulk density. The soil respiration decreased exponentially with distance from the palm trunks with the sharpest decline found for the plantation with the younger palms with overall fluxes of 1341 and 988 mg CO2 m−2 h−1, respectively, at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. The mean heterotrophic flux was 909 ± SE 136 and 716 ± SE 201 mg m−2 h−1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Autotrophic emissions adjacent to the palm trunks were 845 ± SE 135 and 1558 ± SE 341 mg m−2 h−1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Heterotrophic CO2 flux was positively related to peat soil moisture, but not temperature. Total peat C stocks were 60 kg m−2 (down to 1 m depth) and did not vary among plantations of different ages but SOC concentrations declined significantly with depth at both plantations but the decline was sharper in the second generation 2006 plantation. The CO2 flux values reported in this study suggest a potential for very high carbon (C) loss from drained tropical peats during the dry season. This is particularly concerning given that more intense dry periods related to climate change are predicted for SE Asia. Taken together, this study highlights the need for careful management of tropical peatlands, and the vulnerability of their carbon storage capability under conditions of drainage.
Abstract: We study a super unified theory with gauge group SU(11). The subgroup SU(6) has been interpreted as a new type of energy source other than SU(5)[SU(5) SU(3) SU(2) U(1)], where SU(3) the strong energy group; SU(2) the weak energy group & U(1) the electro dynamics]. We consider a (4+D)–dimensional Friedmann–Robertson–Walker type universe having complex scale factor R + iRI , where R is the scale factor corresponding to the usual 4–dimensional Universe while RI is that of D–dimensional space. It is then compared with (4+D)–dimensional Kaluza–Klein Cosmology having two scale factors R and a(= iRI). It is shown that the rate of compactification of higher dimension depends on extra dimension ‘D’. The Wheeler–DeWitt equation is constructed and general solution is obtained. It is found that for D = 6 (i.e. in 10 dimension), the Wheeler–DeWitt equation is symmetric under the exchange RI R.
This paper centers on assessing the socio-economic impact of electronic banking business in Sub-Saharan Africa, while critically observing the role that emerging FinTech ecosystems play in deepening economic inclusion and access in developing countries. Extensive related literatures were consulted which were integrated into this new body of knowledge, which has been one of the recommended areas for future research. Research hypothesis were derived to validate relevant findings. This study aim to provide transparency on whether the development of digital payments business and FinTech ecosystems are having a synergistic positive impact or otherwise, on the economic well-being of developing countries. It will also support potential foreign investors and multilateral development agencies on relevant socio-economic factors to note, while expanding into or supporting development in developing countries. The implication of this is for policyholders, multilateral development organizations, investors, donor agencies and governments to be conscious of the real impact and take perceptual measures where and when the need arises.
Abstract: We study with a new conception beyond the standard model physics and about the formation of biological molecules/atoms. Our physical universe appeared by a continuous symmetry breaking of the new energy sources from ‘Big Rip’ Singularity[i.e. when space-time(here we consider the square of the Einstein’s real space & time of the physical unfolded universe i.e., -R 2 )is infinity in another phase] to the “Super Unified Gaussian Energy Group SU(11)”(that means considering the Revised Standard Model of Physics) then GUT the “Unified Gaussian Energy Group SU(5)”[i.e., the present Standard Model of Physics], i.e. in a “Particular Physical Universe” (called a narrower universe) [there may be created several type of particular “ Physical Universe” in the ocean(filled with new energy sources explained details in my previous articles) of the wider universe which infinitely largest].These class of symmetry group starting from Big-Rip singularity where energy pressure and density exists[it was shown in my article “The Complex Quantum and Classical PseudoTachyonic Universe”, IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) e-ISSN: 2278-5728,p-ISSN: 2319-765X, Volume 8, Issue 3 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 15-32 www.iosrjournals.org)] and can be expressed mathematically(by using lie-algebra) as SU(5) SU (3) SU( 2) U(1); SU(11) SU (5) SU( 6) U(1); SU (23) SU (12) SU (11) U (1); SU (47) SU(24) SU (23) U (1); ...........so on. Thus we assumed that our physical universe appeared by the continuous phase-like transition creating several new energies(compared as like Gas-Vapor-Liquid states) and actually unfolded with the symmetry breaking of the Super Unified Gaussian Energy Group SU(11) [ SU (6) SU( 5) U(1)]leaving with new energy sources SU(6), called latent energy groups as explained details in my previous articles, and SU(5) [ SU (3) SU( 2) U(1)], the Gaussian Unified Energy group (GUT) and the electrodynamics U(1), which are inevitable arises particles that have the characteristics of a magnetic monopole. Monopoles are highly stable particles and once created they are not destructible. And so they would survive as relics to the present epoch. Again our all experiments and measurements or truths/believes are mainly on the basis of “Standard Model of Physics” or “General Relativity Theory” that means any calculation or experiments made on the basis of matter universe(i.e., 4-dimensional universe where so called space-time-matter exists, although it is called real that means only for a particular purpose that counting for a complete matter body like physical universes, cluster, galaxies, stars, humans, lives, trees,…etc.) formed by the Unified Gaussian Energy Group SU(5), we called it’s a narrower universe i.e., a particular physical universe where expansion and contraction both may be occurred simultaneously within the speed of light for a particular observer and hence Lorentz transformation, Time dilation,…..etc. Violations may be occurred when we go beyond the “Standard Model of Physics” of SU(5) to the “Revised Standard Model of Physics” i.e., SU(11), thus outside the physical universe, in the case of the “Wider Universe” where the energy particles were found in another phase. We illustrate the scenario with an example that when water decomposed into Hydrogen and Oxygen, the character of water are Revised Standard Model of Physics and Origin of Biology DOI: 10.9790/4861-1101011240 www.iosrjournals.org 13 | Page that of the usual protons, neutrons,….etc or having much more new unknown particles (which are very much medical relevance for better and critical treatments) created other than Hadrons, Hyperons, Nucleons,…etc. of SU(5) and after then those unknown particles may gradually increasing their strengths like as increasing the atomic numbers of usual matter atoms and hence we may found heavy bio-molecular living matter atoms etc. and then created multiple bio-molecular cells combining with nonliving matter atoms. Thus living matters always created by the energies of the group of SU(6) together with all other atoms/elements/compound elements/mainly covalencecompounds….etc. which was formed only after the symmetry breaking of the nonliving matter energy groups of SU(5) as, encountered in condensed matter physics, e.g., in the description of the conduction electron sea, excitons, magnons, polarons, polaritons, etc. (Ashcroft & Mermin, 1976). This is very important in view of the potential importance of quantum effects in biology and in consciousness where not only are systems of many particles considered, but they function at high temperatures compared to those typically encountered in quantum physics then so called various kind of complex living cell bodies. It should right that the actual real time measurement or calculation counting from the symmetry breaking of the Super Unified Energy Group SU(11) instead of the symmetry breaking of the Unified Energy Group (GUT) of SU(5). For lives, the real time was measured in two halves first from the fertilization by their parents(actual counting of time started) and second from the birth till to the death, although for our age(time) calculations, we ignore the first half similarly for the real time calculations of our physical universe we ignore the first half that means from the symmetry breaking of SU(11)up to the next symmetry breaking of SU(5)[although material substances created by the Unified Gaussian Group SU(5) by the directions of SU(6) with a suitable situations when it is possible to create bio-molecules that means all then chemical elements created from hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon,…etc. and with heavier elements or compound elements created by the quarks were tightly binding with gluons etc. of SU(5), and thus inanimate particles are then ready for the creation of the animates particles that means the situation when we consider to produce biological molecules or other units like single live cell then gradually multiple cells with DNA/RNA pairs, chromosome pairs,….etc. where most of the organic compounds in which are mainly constructed by the co-valence compounds or compositions or constituted like polymers which are also tightly binding by theJk–bosons(latently)[details ofJk–bosons explained in my previous articles] of SU(6) and creating strong electromagnetic forces[in theory of SU(11) where the latent energy group of SU(6) are created so strong forces relatively the weak forces of SU(5)] (that means in comparison to the chemical elements or compounds elements of atoms/molecules etc. which are constructed by the quarks binding with gluons ….etc. are weaker than some of the unknown new particles formed by the quarks-likes binding withJk–bosons) or creating a strong current SU(6) in the frame-work of SU(6) U(1) like the weak force SU(2) created a weak current in the frame-work of SU(2) U(1) are ready to dynamical situations within the living matters or cells or lives. Our physical universe expanded up to Big-Break singularity like by the directional commands with the energy group SU(6)[by exchanging 30-number of bosons of SU(6) into the 30-number of bosons of SU(5) or vice-versa by exchanging the J-bosons of SU(11)] created like so called consciousness together with all other leaving new energy sources SU(12), SU(24),…..etc. Thus we may be assumed that consciousness is not only in animates but also for inanimate (where quarks are tightly binding by the gluons forming protons, neutrons, electrons,…. etc. for nonliving matters) for which unfolded in a suitable situations like earth(where quark-like particles are tightly binding by theJk–bosons of SU(6) for living matters) and the created residue unknown new particles other than usual particles (that means as like protons, neutrons, electrons,…..etc. which are formed by quarks with gluons) are always remained within the living and nonliving elements or compound elements or covalence compounds or polymers…..etc. as quantum gravity and everywhere which are called as vacant spaces within our universe. The above mentioned processes are always occurred continuously in the wider universe which is infinitely larges with other new energy sources. Hence in quantum theories of consciousness, it is suggested that consciousness is a fundamental property of the universe. Energies of SU(6) created quantum gravity as well as gravitational forces which are required for the formation of a complete body with definite shape for living and nonliving matter bodies, like stars with its planets,…. etc. and living bodies with its parts,…. etc. and then so called vacant spaces are properly filled with the strong new forces of SU(6) around us and also formed like living cells with organic and inorganic elements or compounds…. etc. mainly constructed by the chemical co-valence compounds (carbon based like in earth, another planet may be silicon based etc., because carbon and silicon belongs to the same group in our periodic table) that means which Revised Standard Model of Physics and Origin of Biology DOI: 10.9790/4861-1101011240 www.iosrjournals.org 14 | Page are more flexible for creating several angled atomic bonds other than rigid crystal-likes and then it is bindings with cells may operated more easily than other rigid or crystal solid bodies of elements/compound elements and hence formed as biological cells by creating with polymerizations etc. and hence then cell-divisions etc. Within the biological cells SU(6) combining with all other several elements or compound elements with different ions which are created more different waves but coherently emerging as a single wave or wave functions. Thus in the bio-molecules/atoms etc. where all material parts created by the elements/atoms of the Unified Gaussian Energy Group (GUT) of SU(5) delivering behaviors like intelligence, consciousness, mind, emotions,…. etc. with the combinations of the new energy sources of SU(6),….etc. and also created an electromagnetic force or current within the brain cells i.e., microtubules by the latent energy group SU(6) creating an electromagnetic strong force in the framework of SU(6) U(1) with producing new unknown particles in the living mode or nonliving mode.Thus for living bodies through ion channel constituted a flow of current throughout the body carrying with charges of free electron-likes etc. and also may be similar for the case in the universe where stars atmosphere like as brain cell……etc.(taking as centre point) always controlled the whole system for example our solar system etc. The created amount of material substances by SU(5)changing by the bosons of SU(6) are always fixed for a particular nonliving/living developing bodies and hence for expansive universe or for its parts of the system till for the compilation or stable shaped. Similarly, after a certain or fixed time (age) our living bodies started like contraction. Thus, always maintaining a common system like for universe /cluster/galaxy/star/planet/animal/…..etc. those are all controlled mainly by the same energy sources of SU(6), then by others like SU(12),SU(24),..…etc. with the combination of the strong force SU(3), weak force SU(2), & electrodynamics U(1) of SU(5).