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9 Research products

  • DARIAH EU
  • 2014-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Hienola, Anca; Laj, Paolo; +10 Authors

    Abstract. Acquiring and distributing essential information for understanding global biogeochemical interactions between the atmosphere and ecosystems, and how climate-ecosystem feedback loops may change atmospheric composition in the future is a fundamental pre-requisite for societal resilience in view of climate change. Particularly, the detection of trends and periodicity in the presence of greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-active atmospheric constituents is an important aspect of climate science. Thus, the availability of an easy and fast access to reliable, long-term, and high-quality environmental data is recognized as fundamental for research and for developing environmental prediction and assessment services. In our Opinion Article, we develop the role environmental research infrastructures in Europe (ENVRI RIs) and particularly the atmosphere-centred research infrastructures ACTRIS, IAGOS and ICOS can assume with their capacities for standardised acquisition and reporting of long-term and high-quality observational data, complemented by rich metadata, for the provision of data by open access, and for data interoperability across different research fields including all fields of environmental sciences and beyond. Resulting from these capacities in data collection and provision, we elaborate on the novel research opportunities in atmospheric sciences which evolve from the combination of open-access and interoperable observational data, tools and technologies offered by data-intensive science, and the emerging service ecosystem of the collaboration platform ENVRI-Hub, hosted by the European Open Science Cloud.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; +43 Authors

    The LOFAR data in this manuscript were processed by the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) team. This team made use of the LOFAR direction-independent calibration pipeline (https://github.com/lofar-astron/prefactor), which was deployed by the LOFAR e-infragroup on the Dutch National Grid infrastructure with support of the SURF Co-operative through grants e-infra 160022 e-infra 160152 (Mechev et al. 2017). The LoTSS direction dependent calibration and imaging pipeline (http://github.com/mhardcastle/ddf-pipeline/) was run on compute clusters at Leiden Observatory and the University of Hertfordshire, which are supported by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant [NEWCLUSTERS-321271] and the UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) [ST/P000096/1]. The Jülich LOFAR Long Term Archive and the German LOFAR network are both coordinated and operated by the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), and computing resources on the supercomputer JUWELS at JSC were provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing e.V. (grant CHTB00) through the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC). J.R.C. thanks the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) for support via the Talent Programme Veni grant. H.K. and S.B. acknowledge funding from the NWO for the project e-MAPS (project number Vi.Vidi.203.093) under the NWO talent scheme VIDI. T.W.H.Y. acknowledges funding from EOSC Future (Grant Agreement no. 101017536) projects funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. P.N.B. is grateful for support from the UK STFC via grant ST/V000594/1. M.J.H. acknowledges support from the UK STFC [ST/V000624/1]. M.H. acknowledges funding from the ERC under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 772663). R.J.v.W. and R.T. acknowledge support from the ERC Starting Grant ClusterWeb 804208. G.J.W. gratefully acknowledges the support of an Emeritus Fellowship from The Leverhulme Trust. D.J.B. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Collaborative Research Center SFB1491 “Cosmic Interacting Matters – From Source to Signal”. A. Bonafede, A. Botteon, D.N.H., and C.J.R. acknowledge support from ERC Stg DRA-NOEL n. 714245 and MIUR FARE grant “SMS”. A.D. acknowledges support by the BMBF Verbundforschung under the grant 05A20STA. K.L.E. is a Jan-sky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. M. Haj and K.C.H. acknowledge the MSHE for granting funds for the Polish contribution to the International LOFAR Telescope (MSHE decision no. DIR/WK/2016/2017/05-1) and for maintenance of the LOFAR PL-612 Baldy (MSHE decision no. 59/E-383/SPUB/SP/2019.1), and LOFAR PL-611 Lazy (MSHE decision no. 46/E-338/SPUB/SP/2019). M.K. acknowledges support from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Research Unit FOR 5195 “Relativistic Jets in Active Galaxies”. M.K.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Centre, Poland under grant no. 2017/26/E/ST9/00216. B.M. acknowledges support from the UK STFC under grants ST/R00109X/1, ST/R000794/1, and ST/T000295/1. L.K.M. is grateful for support from the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (grant MR/T042842/1). D.G.N. acknowledges funding from Conicyt through Fondecyt Postdoctorado (project code 3220195). M.P.T. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) and through grant PID2020-117404GB-C21 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. T.P.R. acknowledges support from the ERC Grant No. 743029 (EASY). A.R. acknowledges funding from the NWO Aspasia grant (number: 015.016.033). M.V. acknowledges financial support from the Inter-University Institute for Data Intensive Astronomy (IDIA), a partnership of the University of Cape Town, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Western Cape and the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, and from the South African Department of Science and Innovation’s National Research Foundation under the ISARP RADIOSKY2020 Joint Research Scheme (DSI-NRF Grant Number 113121) and the CSUR HIPPO Project (DSI-NRF Grant Number 121291). This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This work has also made use of TOPCAT (Taylor 2005); the IPYTHON package (Pérez & Granger 2007); SciPy (Jones et al. 2001); MATPLOTLIB, a PYTHON library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007); ASTROPY, a community-developed core PYTHON package for astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013); and NUMPY (Van Der Walt et al. 2011). We present the detection of 68 sources from the most sensitive radio survey in circular polarisation conducted to date. We used the second data release of the 144 MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey to produce circularly polarised maps with a median noise of 140 µJy beam−1 and resolution of 20″ for ≈27% of the northern sky (5634 deg2). The leakage of total intensity into circular polarisation is measured to be ≈0.06%, and our survey is complete at flux densities ≥1 mJy. A detection is considered reliable when the circularly polarised fraction exceeds 1%. We find the population of circularly polarised sources is composed of four distinct classes: stellar systems, pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and sources unidentified in the literature. The stellar systems can be further separated into chromospherically active stars, M dwarfs, and brown dwarfs. Based on the circularly polarised fraction and lack of an optical counterpart, we show it is possible to infer whether the unidentified sources are likely unknown pulsars or brown dwarfs. By the completion of this survey of the northern sky, we expect to detect 300±100 circularly polarised sources. © The Authors 2023. Full list of authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Yiu, T. W. H.; Bloot, S.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Kavanagh, R. D.; Lamy, L.; Pope, B. J. S.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Schwarz, D. J.; Tasse, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Bomans, D. J.; Bonafede, A.; Bonato, M.; Botteon, A.; Bruggen, M.; Chyzy, K. T.; Drabent, A.; Emig, K. L.; Gloudemans, A. J.; Guerkan, G.; Hajduk, M.; Hoang, D. N.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Kadler, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Mingo, B.; Morabito, L. K.; Nair, D. G.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ray, T. P.; Riseley, C. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Shulevski, A.; Sweijen, F.; Timmerman, R.; Vaccari, M.; Zheng, J.-- This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S). Peer reviewed

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    Durham Research Online
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2023
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    Radboud Repository
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Durham Research Onli...arrow_drop_down
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      Durham Research Online
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
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      Radboud Repository
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Gazzarrini, Elena; Garcia, Enrique; Gosein, Domenic; Moya, Alba Vendrell; +2 Authors

    The Virtual Research Environment is an analysis platform developed at CERN serving the needs of scientific communities involved in European Projects. Its scope is to facilitate the development of end-to-end physics workflows, providing researchers with access to an infrastructure and to the digital content necessary to produce and preserve a scientific result in compliance with FAIR principles. The platform's development is aimed at demonstrating how sciences spanning from High Energy Physics to Astrophysics could benefit from the usage of common technologies, initially born to satisfy CERN's exabyte-scale data management needs. The Virtual Research Environment's main components are (1) a federated distributed storage solution (the Data Lake), providing functionalities for data injection and replication through a Data Management framework (Rucio), (2) a computing cluster supplying the processing power to run full analyses with Reana, a re-analysis software, (3) a federated and reliable Authentication and Authorization layer and (4) an enhanced notebook interface with containerised environments to hide the infrastructure's complexity from the user. The deployment of the Virtual Research Environment is open-source and modular, in order to make it easily reproducible by partner institutions; it is publicly accessible and kept up to date by taking advantage of state of the art IT-infrastructure technologies.

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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: E. A. Huerta; Ben Blaiszik; L. Catherine Brinson; Kristofer E. Bouchard; +20 Authors

    A foundational set of findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR) principles were proposed in 2016 as prerequisites for proper data management and stewardship, with the goal of enabling the reusability of scholarly data. The principles were also meant to apply to other digital assets, at a high level, and over time, the FAIR guiding principles have been re-interpreted or extended to include the software, tools, algorithms, and workflows that produce data. FAIR principles are now being adapted in the context of AI models and datasets. Here, we present the perspectives, vision, and experiences of researchers from different countries, disciplines, and backgrounds who are leading the definition and adoption of FAIR principles in their communities of practice, and discuss outcomes that may result from pursuing and incentivizing FAIR AI research. The material for this report builds on the FAIR for AI Workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on June 7, 2022. 10 pages, comments welcome!; v2: 12 pages, accepted to Scientific Data

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    Authors: Nadia Boukhelifa; Michael Bryant; Natasa Bulatovic; Ivan Čukić; +5 Authors

    International audience; The CENDARI infrastructure is a research-supporting platform designed to provide tools for transnational historical research, focusing on two topics: medieval culture and World War I. It exposes to the end users modern Web-based tools relying on a sophisticated infrastructure to collect, enrich, annotate, and search through large document corpora. Supporting researchers in their daily work is a novel concern for infrastructures. We describe how we gathered requirements through multiple methods to understand historians' needs and derive an abstract workflow to support them. We then outline the tools that we have built, tying their technical descriptions to the user requirements. The main tools are the note-taking environment and its faceted search capabilities; the data integration platform including the Data API, supporting semantic enrichment through entity recognition; and the environment supporting the software development processes throughout the project to keep both technical partners and researchers in the loop. The outcomes are technical together with new resources developed and gathered, and the research workflow that has been described and documented.

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    Authors: Hube, Christoph; Fetahu, Besnik;

    Biased language commonly occurs around topics which are of controversial nature, thus, stirring disagreement between the different involved parties of a discussion. This is due to the fact that for language and its use, specifically, the understanding and use of phrases, the stances are cohesive within the particular groups. However, such cohesiveness does not hold across groups. In collaborative environments or environments where impartial language is desired (e.g. Wikipedia, news media), statements and the language therein should represent equally the involved parties and be neutrally phrased. Biased language is introduced through the presence of inflammatory words or phrases, or statements that may be incorrect or one-sided, thus violating such consensus. In this work, we focus on the specific case of phrasing bias, which may be introduced through specific inflammatory words or phrases in a statement. For this purpose, we propose an approach that relies on a recurrent neural networks in order to capture the inter-dependencies between words in a phrase that introduced bias. We perform a thorough experimental evaluation, where we show the advantages of a neural based approach over competitors that rely on word lexicons and other hand-crafted features in detecting biased language. We are able to distinguish biased statements with a precision of P=0.92, thus significantly outperforming baseline models with an improvement of over 30%. Finally, we release the largest corpus of statements annotated for biased language. The Twelfth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, February 11--15, 2019, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1811.0574...
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    https://doi.org/10.1145/328960...
    Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1145/328960...
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    Authors: Boveia, Antonio; Doglioni, Caterina; Gao, Boyu; Greaves, Josh; +18 Authors

    Comparisons of the coverage of current and proposed dark matter searches can help us to understand the context in which a discovery of particle dark matter would be made. In some scenarios, a discovery could be reinforced by information from multiple, complementary types of experiments; in others, only one experiment would see a signal, giving only a partial, more ambiguous picture; in still others, no experiment would be sensitive and new approaches would be needed. In this whitepaper, we present an update to a similar study performed for the European Strategy Briefing Book performed within the dark matter at the Energy Frontier (EF10) Snowmass Topical Group We take as a starting point a set of projections for future collider facilities and a method of graphical comparisons routinely performed for LHC DM searches using simplified models recommended by the LHC Dark Matter Working Group and also used for the BSM and dark matter chapters of the European Strategy Briefing Book. These comparisons can also serve as launching point for cross-frontier discussions about dark matter complementarity. Comment: Submitted to the Proceedings of the US Community Study on the Future of Particle Physics (Snowmass 2021)

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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: David, Romain; Baumann, Kurt; Le Franc, Yann; Magagna, Barbara; +12 Authors

    Semantic interoperability (SI) is at the heart of the FAIR principles and the design of large-scale cross-disciplinary infrastructures. The European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) is a European-wide effort towards such an infrastructure, aiming to deepen regional research collaboration and realising a shared data space for science, research and innovation. In this context, the research community’s voice is represented by the EOSC Association (EOSC-A) and a number of advisory groups with a broad range of representatives from different stakeholder organisations. The advisory group on metadata and data quality has formed a task force focusing on developing and implementing recommendations for SI (EOSC SI Task Force) to converge on globally relevant and scalable SI solutions for EOSC. This paper provides context to SI in EOSC, the various components contributing to it, as well as some views on the socio-technical challenges to arriving at a consensus. In particular, the paper provides motivation for exploring the heterogeneity of SI solutions demonstrated across scientific communities and insight into the task force’s planned approach to conducting a survey to identify relevant components and structures. The paper is also an invitation to the global community to align and engage with the task force’s activities going forward. This research is a product of the Task Force "Semantic Interoperability" of the EOSC-Association European, the legal entity established to govern the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). Complementary support and information were provided through European projects "EOSC-Life" (No824087) and "FAIR Impact" (No101057344). This paper is linked to the Supplementary Material - Magagna, Barbara, Baumann, Kurt, David, Romain, Jouneau, Thomas, Le Franc, Yann, Koivula, Hanna, Madon, Bénédicte, Nyberg Åkerström, Wolmar, Ojsteršek, Milan, Scharnhorst, Andrea, Schubert, Chris, Shi, Zhengdong, Tanca, Letizia, Vancauwenbergh, Sadia, Vogt, Lars, & Widmann, Heinrich. (2023). Proposal for the EOSC Semantic Interoperability Questionnaire (1.0.2). 2nd Workshop on Ontologies for FAIR and FAIR Ontologies (Onto4FAIR), Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8028392 This Supplementary Material will be updated during the process of the survey-completion {"references": ["Magagna, Barbara, Baumann, Kurt, David, Romain, Jouneau, Thomas, Le Franc, Yann, Koivula, Hanna, Madon, B\u00e9n\u00e9dicte, Nyberg \u00c5kerstr\u00f6m, Wolmar, Ojster\u0161ek, Milan, Scharnhorst, Andrea, Schubert, Chris, Shi, Zhengdong, Tanca, Letizia, Vancauwenbergh, Sadia, Vogt, Lars, & Widmann, Heinrich. (2023). Proposal for the EOSC Semantic Interoperability Questionnaire (1.0.2). 2nd Workshop on Ontologies for FAIR and FAIR Ontologies (Onto4FAIR), Sherbrooke, Qu\u00e9bec (Canada). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8028392"]}

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    Authors: Buddenbohm, Stefan; de Jong, Maaike; Minel, Jean-Luc; Moranville, Yoann; +4 Authors

    Abstract How can researchers identify suitable research data repositories for the deposit of their research data? Which repository matches best the technical and legal requirements of a specific research project? For this end and with a humanities perspective the Data Deposit Recommendation Service (DDRS) has been developed as a prototype. It not only serves as a functional service for selecting humanities research data repositories but it is particularly a technical demonstrator illustrating the potential of re-using an already existing infrastructure - in this case re3data - and the feasibility to set up this kind of service for other research disciplines. The documentation and the code of this project can be found in the DARIAH GitHub repository: https://dariah-eric.github.io/ddrs/. H2020 Research Infrastructures http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010666 Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (1018)

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    International Journal of Digital Humanities
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    Authors: Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Hienola, Anca; Laj, Paolo; +10 Authors

    Abstract. Acquiring and distributing essential information for understanding global biogeochemical interactions between the atmosphere and ecosystems, and how climate-ecosystem feedback loops may change atmospheric composition in the future is a fundamental pre-requisite for societal resilience in view of climate change. Particularly, the detection of trends and periodicity in the presence of greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-active atmospheric constituents is an important aspect of climate science. Thus, the availability of an easy and fast access to reliable, long-term, and high-quality environmental data is recognized as fundamental for research and for developing environmental prediction and assessment services. In our Opinion Article, we develop the role environmental research infrastructures in Europe (ENVRI RIs) and particularly the atmosphere-centred research infrastructures ACTRIS, IAGOS and ICOS can assume with their capacities for standardised acquisition and reporting of long-term and high-quality observational data, complemented by rich metadata, for the provision of data by open access, and for data interoperability across different research fields including all fields of environmental sciences and beyond. Resulting from these capacities in data collection and provision, we elaborate on the novel research opportunities in atmospheric sciences which evolve from the combination of open-access and interoperable observational data, tools and technologies offered by data-intensive science, and the emerging service ecosystem of the collaboration platform ENVRI-Hub, hosted by the European Open Science Cloud.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; +43 Authors

    The LOFAR data in this manuscript were processed by the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) team. This team made use of the LOFAR direction-independent calibration pipeline (https://github.com/lofar-astron/prefactor), which was deployed by the LOFAR e-infragroup on the Dutch National Grid infrastructure with support of the SURF Co-operative through grants e-infra 160022 e-infra 160152 (Mechev et al. 2017). The LoTSS direction dependent calibration and imaging pipeline (http://github.com/mhardcastle/ddf-pipeline/) was run on compute clusters at Leiden Observatory and the University of Hertfordshire, which are supported by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant [NEWCLUSTERS-321271] and the UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) [ST/P000096/1]. The Jülich LOFAR Long Term Archive and the German LOFAR network are both coordinated and operated by the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), and computing resources on the supercomputer JUWELS at JSC were provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing e.V. (grant CHTB00) through the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC). J.R.C. thanks the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) for support via the Talent Programme Veni grant. H.K. and S.B. acknowledge funding from the NWO for the project e-MAPS (project number Vi.Vidi.203.093) under the NWO talent scheme VIDI. T.W.H.Y. acknowledges funding from EOSC Future (Grant Agreement no. 101017536) projects funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. P.N.B. is grateful for support from the UK STFC via grant ST/V000594/1. M.J.H. acknowledges support from the UK STFC [ST/V000624/1]. M.H. acknowledges funding from the ERC under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 772663). R.J.v.W. and R.T. acknowledge support from the ERC Starting Grant ClusterWeb 804208. G.J.W. gratefully acknowledges the support of an Emeritus Fellowship from The Leverhulme Trust. D.J.B. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Collaborative Research Center SFB1491 “Cosmic Interacting Matters – From Source to Signal”. A. Bonafede, A. Botteon, D.N.H., and C.J.R. acknowledge support from ERC Stg DRA-NOEL n. 714245 and MIUR FARE grant “SMS”. A.D. acknowledges support by the BMBF Verbundforschung under the grant 05A20STA. K.L.E. is a Jan-sky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. M. Haj and K.C.H. acknowledge the MSHE for granting funds for the Polish contribution to the International LOFAR Telescope (MSHE decision no. DIR/WK/2016/2017/05-1) and for maintenance of the LOFAR PL-612 Baldy (MSHE decision no. 59/E-383/SPUB/SP/2019.1), and LOFAR PL-611 Lazy (MSHE decision no. 46/E-338/SPUB/SP/2019). M.K. acknowledges support from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Research Unit FOR 5195 “Relativistic Jets in Active Galaxies”. M.K.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Centre, Poland under grant no. 2017/26/E/ST9/00216. B.M. acknowledges support from the UK STFC under grants ST/R00109X/1, ST/R000794/1, and ST/T000295/1. L.K.M. is grateful for support from the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (grant MR/T042842/1). D.G.N. acknowledges funding from Conicyt through Fondecyt Postdoctorado (project code 3220195). M.P.T. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) and through grant PID2020-117404GB-C21 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. T.P.R. acknowledges support from the ERC Grant No. 743029 (EASY). A.R. acknowledges funding from the NWO Aspasia grant (number: 015.016.033). M.V. acknowledges financial support from the Inter-University Institute for Data Intensive Astronomy (IDIA), a partnership of the University of Cape Town, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Western Cape and the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, and from the South African Department of Science and Innovation’s National Research Foundation under the ISARP RADIOSKY2020 Joint Research Scheme (DSI-NRF Grant Number 113121) and the CSUR HIPPO Project (DSI-NRF Grant Number 121291). This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This work has also made use of TOPCAT (Taylor 2005); the IPYTHON package (Pérez & Granger 2007); SciPy (Jones et al. 2001); MATPLOTLIB, a PYTHON library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007); ASTROPY, a community-developed core PYTHON package for astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013); and NUMPY (Van Der Walt et al. 2011). We present the detection of 68 sources from the most sensitive radio survey in circular polarisation conducted to date. We used the second data release of the 144 MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey to produce circularly polarised maps with a median noise of 140 µJy beam−1 and resolution of 20″ for ≈27% of the northern sky (5634 deg2). The leakage of total intensity into circular polarisation is measured to be ≈0.06%, and our survey is complete at flux densities ≥1 mJy. A detection is considered reliable when the circularly polarised fraction exceeds 1%. We find the population of circularly polarised sources is composed of four distinct classes: stellar systems, pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and sources unidentified in the literature. The stellar systems can be further separated into chromospherically active stars, M dwarfs, and brown dwarfs. Based on the circularly polarised fraction and lack of an optical counterpart, we show it is possible to infer whether the unidentified sources are likely unknown pulsars or brown dwarfs. By the completion of this survey of the northern sky, we expect to detect 300±100 circularly polarised sources. © The Authors 2023. Full list of authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Yiu, T. W. H.; Bloot, S.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Kavanagh, R. D.; Lamy, L.; Pope, B. J. S.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Schwarz, D. J.; Tasse, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Bomans, D. J.; Bonafede, A.; Bonato, M.; Botteon, A.; Bruggen, M.; Chyzy, K. T.; Drabent, A.; Emig, K. L.; Gloudemans, A. J.; Guerkan, G.; Hajduk, M.; Hoang, D. N.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Kadler, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Mingo, B.; Morabito, L. K.; Nair, D. G.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ray, T. P.; Riseley, C. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Shulevski, A.; Sweijen, F.; Timmerman, R.; Vaccari, M.; Zheng, J.-- This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S). Peer reviewed

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    Durham Research Online
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2023
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/