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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Hienola, Anca; Laj, Paolo; +10 Authors

    Abstract. Acquiring and distributing essential information for understanding global biogeochemical interactions between the atmosphere and ecosystems, and how climate-ecosystem feedback loops may change atmospheric composition in the future is a fundamental pre-requisite for societal resilience in view of climate change. Particularly, the detection of trends and periodicity in the presence of greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-active atmospheric constituents is an important aspect of climate science. Thus, the availability of an easy and fast access to reliable, long-term, and high-quality environmental data is recognized as fundamental for research and for developing environmental prediction and assessment services. In our Opinion Article, we develop the role environmental research infrastructures in Europe (ENVRI RIs) and particularly the atmosphere-centred research infrastructures ACTRIS, IAGOS and ICOS can assume with their capacities for standardised acquisition and reporting of long-term and high-quality observational data, complemented by rich metadata, for the provision of data by open access, and for data interoperability across different research fields including all fields of environmental sciences and beyond. Resulting from these capacities in data collection and provision, we elaborate on the novel research opportunities in atmospheric sciences which evolve from the combination of open-access and interoperable observational data, tools and technologies offered by data-intensive science, and the emerging service ecosystem of the collaboration platform ENVRI-Hub, hosted by the European Open Science Cloud.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; +43 Authors

    The LOFAR data in this manuscript were processed by the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) team. This team made use of the LOFAR direction-independent calibration pipeline (https://github.com/lofar-astron/prefactor), which was deployed by the LOFAR e-infragroup on the Dutch National Grid infrastructure with support of the SURF Co-operative through grants e-infra 160022 e-infra 160152 (Mechev et al. 2017). The LoTSS direction dependent calibration and imaging pipeline (http://github.com/mhardcastle/ddf-pipeline/) was run on compute clusters at Leiden Observatory and the University of Hertfordshire, which are supported by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant [NEWCLUSTERS-321271] and the UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) [ST/P000096/1]. The Jülich LOFAR Long Term Archive and the German LOFAR network are both coordinated and operated by the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), and computing resources on the supercomputer JUWELS at JSC were provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing e.V. (grant CHTB00) through the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC). J.R.C. thanks the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) for support via the Talent Programme Veni grant. H.K. and S.B. acknowledge funding from the NWO for the project e-MAPS (project number Vi.Vidi.203.093) under the NWO talent scheme VIDI. T.W.H.Y. acknowledges funding from EOSC Future (Grant Agreement no. 101017536) projects funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. P.N.B. is grateful for support from the UK STFC via grant ST/V000594/1. M.J.H. acknowledges support from the UK STFC [ST/V000624/1]. M.H. acknowledges funding from the ERC under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 772663). R.J.v.W. and R.T. acknowledge support from the ERC Starting Grant ClusterWeb 804208. G.J.W. gratefully acknowledges the support of an Emeritus Fellowship from The Leverhulme Trust. D.J.B. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Collaborative Research Center SFB1491 “Cosmic Interacting Matters – From Source to Signal”. A. Bonafede, A. Botteon, D.N.H., and C.J.R. acknowledge support from ERC Stg DRA-NOEL n. 714245 and MIUR FARE grant “SMS”. A.D. acknowledges support by the BMBF Verbundforschung under the grant 05A20STA. K.L.E. is a Jan-sky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. M. Haj and K.C.H. acknowledge the MSHE for granting funds for the Polish contribution to the International LOFAR Telescope (MSHE decision no. DIR/WK/2016/2017/05-1) and for maintenance of the LOFAR PL-612 Baldy (MSHE decision no. 59/E-383/SPUB/SP/2019.1), and LOFAR PL-611 Lazy (MSHE decision no. 46/E-338/SPUB/SP/2019). M.K. acknowledges support from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Research Unit FOR 5195 “Relativistic Jets in Active Galaxies”. M.K.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Centre, Poland under grant no. 2017/26/E/ST9/00216. B.M. acknowledges support from the UK STFC under grants ST/R00109X/1, ST/R000794/1, and ST/T000295/1. L.K.M. is grateful for support from the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (grant MR/T042842/1). D.G.N. acknowledges funding from Conicyt through Fondecyt Postdoctorado (project code 3220195). M.P.T. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) and through grant PID2020-117404GB-C21 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. T.P.R. acknowledges support from the ERC Grant No. 743029 (EASY). A.R. acknowledges funding from the NWO Aspasia grant (number: 015.016.033). M.V. acknowledges financial support from the Inter-University Institute for Data Intensive Astronomy (IDIA), a partnership of the University of Cape Town, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Western Cape and the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, and from the South African Department of Science and Innovation’s National Research Foundation under the ISARP RADIOSKY2020 Joint Research Scheme (DSI-NRF Grant Number 113121) and the CSUR HIPPO Project (DSI-NRF Grant Number 121291). This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This work has also made use of TOPCAT (Taylor 2005); the IPYTHON package (Pérez & Granger 2007); SciPy (Jones et al. 2001); MATPLOTLIB, a PYTHON library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007); ASTROPY, a community-developed core PYTHON package for astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013); and NUMPY (Van Der Walt et al. 2011). We present the detection of 68 sources from the most sensitive radio survey in circular polarisation conducted to date. We used the second data release of the 144 MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey to produce circularly polarised maps with a median noise of 140 µJy beam−1 and resolution of 20″ for ≈27% of the northern sky (5634 deg2). The leakage of total intensity into circular polarisation is measured to be ≈0.06%, and our survey is complete at flux densities ≥1 mJy. A detection is considered reliable when the circularly polarised fraction exceeds 1%. We find the population of circularly polarised sources is composed of four distinct classes: stellar systems, pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and sources unidentified in the literature. The stellar systems can be further separated into chromospherically active stars, M dwarfs, and brown dwarfs. Based on the circularly polarised fraction and lack of an optical counterpart, we show it is possible to infer whether the unidentified sources are likely unknown pulsars or brown dwarfs. By the completion of this survey of the northern sky, we expect to detect 300±100 circularly polarised sources. © The Authors 2023. Full list of authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Yiu, T. W. H.; Bloot, S.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Kavanagh, R. D.; Lamy, L.; Pope, B. J. S.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Schwarz, D. J.; Tasse, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Bomans, D. J.; Bonafede, A.; Bonato, M.; Botteon, A.; Bruggen, M.; Chyzy, K. T.; Drabent, A.; Emig, K. L.; Gloudemans, A. J.; Guerkan, G.; Hajduk, M.; Hoang, D. N.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Kadler, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Mingo, B.; Morabito, L. K.; Nair, D. G.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ray, T. P.; Riseley, C. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Shulevski, A.; Sweijen, F.; Timmerman, R.; Vaccari, M.; Zheng, J.-- This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S). Peer reviewed

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    Durham Research Online
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2023
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2023
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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      Durham Research Online
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2023
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2023
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      Radboud Repository
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Rizza, Ettore; Chardonnens, Anne; Van Hooland, Seth;

    More and more cultural institutions use Linked Data principles to share and connect their collection metadata. In the archival field, initiatives emerge to exploit data contained in archival descriptions and adapt encoding standards to the semantic web. In this context, online authority files can be used to enrich metadata. However, relying on a decentralized network of knowledge bases such as Wikidata, DBpedia or even Viaf has its own difficulties. This paper aims to offer a critical view of these linked authority files by adopting a close-reading approach. Through a practical case study, we intend to identify and illustrate the possibilities and limits of RDF triples compared to institutions' less structured metadata. Comment: Workshop "Dariah "Trust and Understanding: the value of metadata in a digitally joined-up world" (14/05/2018, Brussels), preprint of the submission to the journal "Archives et Biblioth\`eques de Belgique"

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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      DI-fusion
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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  • Authors: Tóth-Czifra, Erzsébet;

    In recent years, FAIR principles have come a long way to serve the global need for generic guidelines governing data management and stewardship. Considering their wide embrace and the support received from governments, policy-makers, governing bodies and funding bodies, FAIR principles have all the potential to have a huge impact on the future landscape of knowledge creation for the better. This opportunity, however, may easily be missed if the specific dynamics of scientific production are not addressed in its disciplinary implementation plans. With the goal of making FAIR meaningful and helping to realise its promises in an arts and humanities context, this paper describes some of the defining aspects underlying the domain-specific epistemic processes that pose hidden or visible challenges in the FAIRification of knowledge creation in Arts and Humanities. By applying the FAIR data guiding principles to arts and humanities data curation workflows, we will show that contrary to their general scope and deliberately domain-independent nature, they have been implicitly designed along underlying assumptions about how knowledge creation operates and communicates. These are: 1. scholarly data or metadata is digital by nature, 2. scholarly data is always created and therefore owned by researchers, and 3. there is a wide community-level agreement on what can be considered scholarly data. The problems around such assumptions in arts and humanities are cornerstones in reconciling disciplinary traditions with the productive implementation of FAIR data management. By addressing them one by one, we aim to contribute to the better understanding of discipline-specific needs and challenges in data production, discovery and reuse. Based on these considerations, we make recommendations that may facilitate the inclusive and optimal implementation of the high-level principles that serve the flourishing of the arts and humanities disciplines rather than imposing limitations on its epistemic practices.

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    Authors: Dumouchel, Suzanne;

    International audience; This contribution will show how Access play a strong role in the creation and structuring of DARIAH, a European Digital Research Infrastructure in Arts and Humanities.To achieve this goal, this contribution will develop the concept of Access from five examples:_ Interdisciplinarity point of view_ Manage contradiction between national and international perspectives_ Involve different communities (not only researchers stakeholders)_ Manage tools and services_ Develop and use new collaboration toolsWe would like to demonstrate that speaking about Access always implies a selection, a choice, even in the perspective of "Open Access".

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2017
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • Authors: Marchand, Manon; Amodeo, Stefania; Allen, Mark;

    Published computational notebooks are rarely reproducible, mainly because software development is not an easy and well documented task for non professional developers. In this communication we provide a comprehensive list of re-usable workflows and good practice tips that we hope can help maintainers of repositories of computational notebooks. This framework is illustrated in a re-usable demonstration repository developed within the ESCAPE and EOSC projects.

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    Authors: Calore, Francesca; Carenza, Pierluca; Eckner, Christopher; Giannotti, Maurizio; +3 Authors

    A future Galactic Supernova (SN) explosion can lead to a gamma-ray signal induced by ultralight Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) thermally produced in the SN core and converted into high-energy photons in the Galactic magnetic field. The detection of such a signal is in the reach of the Large Area Telescope aboard the \emph{Fermi} Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The observation of gamma-ray emission from a future SN has a sensitivity to $g_{a\gamma}\gtrsim 4\times 10^{-13}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for a SN at fiducial distance of $10$ kpc and would allow us to reconstruct the ALP-photon coupling within a factor of $\sim2$, mainly due to the uncertainties on the modeling of the Galactic magnetic field. Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2023
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  • Authors: Romary, Laurent; Seillier, Dorian; Tóth-Czifra, Erzsébet;

    A defining feature of data and data workflows in the arts and humanities domain is their dependence on cultural heritage sources hosted and curated in museums, libraries, galleries and archives. A major difficulty when scholars interact with heritage data is that the nature of the cooperation between researchers and Cultural Heritage Institutions and the researchers working in CHIs (henceforth CHIs) is often constrained by structural and legal challenges but even more by uncertainties as to the expectations of both parties.This recognition led several European organizations such as APEF, CLARIN, Europeana, E-RIHS to come together and join forces under the governance of DARIAH to set up principles and mechanisms for improving the conditions for the use and re-use of cultural heritage data issued by cultural heritage institutions and studied and enriched by researchers. As a first step of this joint effort is the Heritage Data Reuse Charter (https://datacharter.hypotheses.org/) establishes 6 basic principles for improving the use and re-use of cultural heritage resources by researchers and , to help all the relevant actors to work together to connect and improve access to heritage data. These are: Reciprocity, Interoperability, Citability, Openness, Stewardship and Trustworthiness.As a further step in translating these principles to actual data workflows the survey below serves as a template to frame exchanges around cultural heritage data by enabling both Cultural Heritage Institutions, infrastructure providers and researchers and to clarify their goals at the beginning and the project, to specify access to data, provenance information, preferred citation standards, hosting responsibilities etc. on the basis of which the parties can arrive at mutual reuse agreements that could serve as a starting point for a FAIR-by-construction data management, right from the project planning/application phase. In practice, the survey below can be flexibly applied in platform-independent ways in exchange protocols between Cultural Heritage Institutions and researchers, Institutions who sign the Charter could use it (and expect to use such surveys) in their own exchange protocols. Another direction of future developments is to set up a platform dedicated to such exchanges. On the other hand, researchers are encouraged to contact the CHIs during the initial stages of their project in order to explain their plans and figure details of transaction together. This mutual declaration can later be a powerful component in their Data Management Plans as it shows evidence for responsible and fair conduct of cultural heritage data, and fair (but also FAIR) research data management practices that are based on partnership with the holding institution. As enclosing a Research Data Management Plan to grant applications is becoming a more and more common requirement among research funders, we need to raise the funders’ awareness to the fact that such bi- or trilateral agreements and data reuse declarations among researchers, CHIs and infrastructure providers are crucial domain-specific components of FAIR data management.

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  • Authors: Wissik, Tanja; Edmond, Jennifer; Fischer, Frank; de Jong, Franciska; +5 Authors

    The digital humanities (DH) enrich the traditional fields of the humanities with new practices, approaches and methods. Since the turn of the millennium, the necessary skills to realise these new possibilities have been taught in summer schools, workshops and other alternative formats. In the meantime, a growing number of Bachelor's and Master's programmes in digital humanities have been launched worldwide. The DH Course Registry, which is the focus of this article, was created to provide an overview of the growing range of courses on offer worldwide. Its mission is to gather the rich offerings of different courses and to provide an up-to-date picture of the teaching and training opportunities in the field of DH. The article provides a general introduction to this emerging area of research and introduces the two European infrastructures CLARIN and DARIAH, which jointly operate the DH Course Registry. A short history of the Registry is accompanied by a description of the data model and the data curation workflow. Current data, available through the API of the Registry, is evaluated to quantitatively map the international landscape of DH teaching.Preprint of a publication for LibraryTribune (China) (accepted)

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    Authors: Caron, S.; Caron, S.; Eckner, C.; Hendriks, L.; +3 Authors

    The Galactic Center Excess (GCE) in GeV gamma rays has been debated for over a decade, with the possibility that it might be due to dark matter annihilation or undetected point sources such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). This study investigates how the gamma-ray emission model ($\gamma$EM) used in Galactic center analyses affects the interpretation of the GCE's nature. To address this issue, we construct an ultra-fast and powerful inference pipeline based on convolutional Deep Ensemble Networks. We explore the two main competing hypotheses for the GCE using a set of $\gamma$EMs with increasing parametric freedom. We calculate the fractional contribution ($f_{\mathrm{src}}$) of a dim population of MSPs to the total luminosity of the GCE and analyze its dependence on the complexity of the $\gamma$EM. For the simplest $\gamma$EM, we obtain $f_{\mathrm{src}} = 0.10 \pm 0.07$, while the most complex model yields $f_{\mathrm{src}} = 0.79 \pm 0.24.$ In conclusion, we find that the statement about the nature of the GCE (dark matter or not) strongly depends on the assumed $\gamma$EM. The quoted results for $f_{\mathrm{src}}$ do not account for the additional uncertainty arising from the fact that the observed gamma-ray sky is out-of-distribution concerning the investigated $\gamma$EM iterations. We quantify the reality gap between our $\gamma$EMs using deep-learning-based One-Class Deep Support Vector Data Description networks, revealing that all employed $\gamma$EMs have gaps to reality. Our study casts doubt on the validity of previous conclusions regarding the GCE and dark matter, and underscores the urgent need to account for the reality gap and consider previously overlooked ''out of domain'' uncertainties in future interpretations. Comment: 56 pages, 25 figures; comments welcome! Accepted for submission to JCAP; text coincides with the published version

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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2023
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    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2023
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      Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
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    Authors: Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Hienola, Anca; Laj, Paolo; +10 Authors

    Abstract. Acquiring and distributing essential information for understanding global biogeochemical interactions between the atmosphere and ecosystems, and how climate-ecosystem feedback loops may change atmospheric composition in the future is a fundamental pre-requisite for societal resilience in view of climate change. Particularly, the detection of trends and periodicity in the presence of greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-active atmospheric constituents is an important aspect of climate science. Thus, the availability of an easy and fast access to reliable, long-term, and high-quality environmental data is recognized as fundamental for research and for developing environmental prediction and assessment services. In our Opinion Article, we develop the role environmental research infrastructures in Europe (ENVRI RIs) and particularly the atmosphere-centred research infrastructures ACTRIS, IAGOS and ICOS can assume with their capacities for standardised acquisition and reporting of long-term and high-quality observational data, complemented by rich metadata, for the provision of data by open access, and for data interoperability across different research fields including all fields of environmental sciences and beyond. Resulting from these capacities in data collection and provision, we elaborate on the novel research opportunities in atmospheric sciences which evolve from the combination of open-access and interoperable observational data, tools and technologies offered by data-intensive science, and the emerging service ecosystem of the collaboration platform ENVRI-Hub, hosted by the European Open Science Cloud.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; +43 Authors

    The LOFAR data in this manuscript were processed by the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) team. This team made use of the LOFAR direction-independent calibration pipeline (https://github.com/lofar-astron/prefactor), which was deployed by the LOFAR e-infragroup on the Dutch National Grid infrastructure with support of the SURF Co-operative through grants e-infra 160022 e-infra 160152 (Mechev et al. 2017). The LoTSS direction dependent calibration and imaging pipeline (http://github.com/mhardcastle/ddf-pipeline/) was run on compute clusters at Leiden Observatory and the University of Hertfordshire, which are supported by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant [NEWCLUSTERS-321271] and the UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) [ST/P000096/1]. The Jülich LOFAR Long Term Archive and the German LOFAR network are both coordinated and operated by the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), and computing resources on the supercomputer JUWELS at JSC were provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing e.V. (grant CHTB00) through the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC). J.R.C. thanks the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) for support via the Talent Programme Veni grant. H.K. and S.B. acknowledge funding from the NWO for the project e-MAPS (project number Vi.Vidi.203.093) under the NWO talent scheme VIDI. T.W.H.Y. acknowledges funding from EOSC Future (Grant Agreement no. 101017536) projects funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. P.N.B. is grateful for support from the UK STFC via grant ST/V000594/1. M.J.H. acknowledges support from the UK STFC [ST/V000624/1]. M.H. acknowledges funding from the ERC under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 772663). R.J.v.W. and R.T. acknowledge support from the ERC Starting Grant ClusterWeb 804208. G.J.W. gratefully acknowledges the support of an Emeritus Fellowship from The Leverhulme Trust. D.J.B. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Collaborative Research Center SFB1491 “Cosmic Interacting Matters – From Source to Signal”. A. Bonafede, A. Botteon, D.N.H., and C.J.R. acknowledge support from ERC Stg DRA-NOEL n. 714245 and MIUR FARE grant “SMS”. A.D. acknowledges support by the BMBF Verbundforschung under the grant 05A20STA. K.L.E. is a Jan-sky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. M. Haj and K.C.H. acknowledge the MSHE for granting funds for the Polish contribution to the International LOFAR Telescope (MSHE decision no. DIR/WK/2016/2017/05-1) and for maintenance of the LOFAR PL-612 Baldy (MSHE decision no. 59/E-383/SPUB/SP/2019.1), and LOFAR PL-611 Lazy (MSHE decision no. 46/E-338/SPUB/SP/2019). M.K. acknowledges support from the German Science Foundation DFG, via the Research Unit FOR 5195 “Relativistic Jets in Active Galaxies”. M.K.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Centre, Poland under grant no. 2017/26/E/ST9/00216. B.M. acknowledges support from the UK STFC under grants ST/R00109X/1, ST/R000794/1, and ST/T000295/1. L.K.M. is grateful for support from the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (grant MR/T042842/1). D.G.N. acknowledges funding from Conicyt through Fondecyt Postdoctorado (project code 3220195). M.P.T. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) and through grant PID2020-117404GB-C21 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. T.P.R. acknowledges support from the ERC Grant No. 743029 (EASY). A.R. acknowledges funding from the NWO Aspasia grant (number: 015.016.033). M.V. acknowledges financial support from the Inter-University Institute for Data Intensive Astronomy (IDIA), a partnership of the University of Cape Town, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Western Cape and the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, and from the South African Department of Science and Innovation’s National Research Foundation under the ISARP RADIOSKY2020 Joint Research Scheme (DSI-NRF Grant Number 113121) and the CSUR HIPPO Project (DSI-NRF Grant Number 121291). This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This work has also made use of TOPCAT (Taylor 2005); the IPYTHON package (Pérez & Granger 2007); SciPy (Jones et al. 2001); MATPLOTLIB, a PYTHON library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007); ASTROPY, a community-developed core PYTHON package for astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013); and NUMPY (Van Der Walt et al. 2011). We present the detection of 68 sources from the most sensitive radio survey in circular polarisation conducted to date. We used the second data release of the 144 MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey to produce circularly polarised maps with a median noise of 140 µJy beam−1 and resolution of 20″ for ≈27% of the northern sky (5634 deg2). The leakage of total intensity into circular polarisation is measured to be ≈0.06%, and our survey is complete at flux densities ≥1 mJy. A detection is considered reliable when the circularly polarised fraction exceeds 1%. We find the population of circularly polarised sources is composed of four distinct classes: stellar systems, pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and sources unidentified in the literature. The stellar systems can be further separated into chromospherically active stars, M dwarfs, and brown dwarfs. Based on the circularly polarised fraction and lack of an optical counterpart, we show it is possible to infer whether the unidentified sources are likely unknown pulsars or brown dwarfs. By the completion of this survey of the northern sky, we expect to detect 300±100 circularly polarised sources. © The Authors 2023. Full list of authors: Callingham, J. R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vedantham, H. K.; Bassa, C. G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Yiu, T. W. H.; Bloot, S.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Kavanagh, R. D.; Lamy, L.; Pope, B. J. S.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Schwarz, D. J.; Tasse, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Bomans, D. J.; Bonafede, A.; Bonato, M.; Botteon, A.; Bruggen, M.; Chyzy, K. T.; Drabent, A.; Emig, K. L.; Gloudemans, A. J.; Guerkan, G.; Hajduk, M.; Hoang, D. N.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Kadler, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Mingo, B.; Morabito, L. K.; Nair, D. G.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ray, T. P.; Riseley, C. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Shulevski, A.; Sweijen, F.; Timmerman, R.; Vaccari, M.; Zheng, J.-- This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S). Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Rizza, Ettore; Chardonnens, Anne; Van Hooland, Seth;