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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Edmond, Jennifer; Morselli, Francesca;

    PurposeThis paper proposes a new perspective on the enormous and unresolved challenge to existing practices of publication and documentation posed by the outputs of digital research projects in the humanities, where much good work is being lost due to resource or technical challenges.Design/methodology/approachThe paper documents and analyses both the existing literature on promoting sustainability for the outputs of digital humanities projects and the innovative approach of a single large-scale project.FindingsThe findings of the research presented show that sustainability planning for large-scale research projects needs to consider data and technology but also community, communications and process knowledge simultaneously. In addition, it should focus not only on a project as a collection of tangible and intangible assets, but also on the potential user base for these assets and what these users consider valuable about them.Research limitations/implicationsThe conclusions of the paper have been formulated in the context of one specific project. As such, it may amplify the specificities of this project in its results.Practical implicationsAn approach to project sustainability following the recommendations outlined in this paper would include a number of uncommon features, such as a longer development horizon, wider perspective on project results, and an audit of tacit and explicit knowledge.Social ImplicationsThese results can ultimately preserve public investment in projects.Originality/valueThis paper supplements more reductive models for project sustainability with a more holistic approach that others may learn from in mapping and sustaining user value for their projects for the medium to long terms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Journal of Documentation
    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Documentation
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Documentation
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Documentation
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Georgios Artopoulos; Gloria Pignatta; Mattheos Santamouris;

    Almost a century ago Modernism challenged the structure of the city and reshaped its physical space in order to, amongst other things, accommodate new transportation infrastructure and road networks proclaiming the, nowadays much-debated ‘scientificated’ pursuit of efficiency for the city. This transformation has had a great impact on the way humans still design, move in, occupy and experience the city. Today major cities in Europe, such as Paris and London, are considering banning vehicles from their historic centers. In parallel, significant effort is currently underway internationally by designers, architects, and engineers to integrate innovative technologies and sophisticated solutions for energy production, management, and storage, as well as for efficient energy consumption, into the architecture of buildings. In general, this effort seeks for new technologies and design methods (e.g., DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine; Rhicoceros3D with Grasshopper plugin and Ecotect, Radiance and EnergyPlus tools) that would enable a holistic approach to the spatial design of Near-Zero Energy buildings, so that their ecological benefits are an added value to the architectural design and a building’s visual, and material, impact on its surrounding space. The paper inquires how the integration of such technological infrastructure and performance-orientated interfaces changes yet again the structure and form of cities, and to what extent it safeguards social rights and enables equal access to common resources. Drawing from preliminary results and initial considerations of ongoing research that involve the construction of four innovative NZE settlements across Europe, in the context of the EU-funded ZERO-PLUS project, this paper discusses the integration of novel infrastructure in communal spaces of these settlements. In doing so, it contributes to the debate about smart communities and their role in the sustainable management of housing developments and settlements that are designed and developed with the concept of smart territories.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenAIREarrow_drop_down
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    OpenAIRE
    Article . 2018
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    Architecture_MPS
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Architecture_MPS
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OpenAIREarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Architecture_MPS
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Architecture_MPS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Architecture_MPS
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Georgios Artopoulos; Melinos Avrekiou; Marissia Deligiorgi; Andreas C. Andreou; +2 Authors

    One of the most widely investigated computational methods in material culture enquiry, and specifically in architecture, archaeology and built heritage, regards the application of computation for the unsupervised annotation and classification of large datasets, or big unstructured data that otherwise would require a highly laborious supervised marking and analysis process by trained and skilled experts. In many of these operations, computer vision methods are used to analyse datasets in order to annotate them, e.g., the geo-reference of series of aerial photos, or the semantic analysis of digital assets in large repositories of libraries, museums, etc. Currently, computer vision-enabled operations can successfully classify objects by high level attributes across basic level categories, e.g., a chair, vase, column (Wang 2017). Arguably, the next step in the development of these methods is their application for unsupervised semantic analysis of more complex digital representations of objects, in terms of shape, but also to classify variations of geometric configurations that belong to complex assemblages of larger scale, i.e., architecture styles of buildings. This is typically done mostly by experts who identify a building’s historic phases and components chronologically based on spatial and social context, technique of production, provenance, style and geometric or material features, e.g., colour (Historic England 2021). The application of logic and symbolic analysis through recursive mechanisms in architecture, has been used on several occasions in the past – by some researchers for plan configuration classification of historical architecture, for didactic purposes, while by others for the analysis of the unique characteristics of the design process of an architect who was prominent in the history of architecture (Steadman and Mitchell 2010; Stiny 2000). Contextualised in the field of computation analytical methods in architecture, this paper will present the development of an online 3D interface for architectural annotation of built heritage and the study of monuments and buildings (https://annfass-srv.cs.ucy.ac.cy). This 3D interface assists in identifying a building’s architectural components (e.g., arch, dome), understanding stylistic influences (e.g., Gothic, Byzantine), understanding its history, and in comparing it to other buildings of the same period. Literature in computational methods for the analysis of building features and shape analysis relies on 2D representations, e.g., images, architectural drawings, floor plans etc., but recent technological advances have allowed researchers to acquire high quality 3D data (e.g., point clouds, meshes etc.) of monuments ‘as built’, which are more informative and descriptive representations than drawings or floor plans. Wide access to digital 3D documentation and representation methods and the evolution of deep learning methods in processing 3D data have been the source of inspiration for the development of the digital interface discussed in the paper. This online 3D interface relies on deep learning, using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks, to classify the architectural stylistic influences of heritage buildings and historically complex monuments with multiple construction phases based on 3D analysis instead of 2D image-based analysis. This process can contribute to educational activities, as well as facilitate the automated classification of datasets in digital repositories for scholarly research in digital humanities. {"references": ["Historic England, 2020. Architectural Investigation, https://historicengland.org.uk/research/methods/architectural-investigation, accessed 10 March 2021.", "Steadman, P., Mitchell, L., 2010. Architectural morphospace: Mapping worlds of built forms. Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des. 37, 197\u2013220. https://doi.org/10.1068/b35102t", "Stiny, G., 2000. How to Calculate with Shapes. Cambridge MA, MIT.", "Peng-Shuai Wang, Yang Liu, Yu-Xiao Guo, Chun-Yu Sun, and Xin Tong. 2017. O-cnn: Octree-based convolutional neural networks for 3d shape analysis. ACM 1471 Transactions on Graphics, 36.", "Stathopoulou EK, Remondino F. SEMANTIC PHOTOGRAMMETRY- BOOSTING IMAGE-BASED 3D RECONSTRUCTION with SEMANTIC LABELING. In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. Copernicus Publications; 2019;42:685\u201390. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII 2-W9-685-2019", "Shalunts G. (2015) Architectural Style Classification of Building Facade Towers. In: Bebis G. et al. (eds) Advances in Visual Computing. ISVC 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9474. Springer, Cham.", "Ibrahim, Mohamed. (2011). Structuring the design studio education Crafting the projects of the beginning studio using shape grammars."]}

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Presentation . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Presentation . 2021
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    Authors: Marissia Deligiorgi; Maria Maslioukova; Melinos Averkiou; Andreas C. Andreou; +5 Authors

    Abstract Contemporary discourse points to the central role that heritage plays in the process of enabling groups of various cultural or ethnic background to strengthen their feeling of belonging and sharing in society. Safeguarding heritage is also valued highly in the priorities of the European Commission. As a result, there have been several long-term initiatives involving the digitisation, annotation and cataloguing of tangible cultural heritage in museums and collections. Specifically, for built heritage, a pressing challenge is that historical monuments such as buildings, temples, churches or city fortification infrastructures are hard to document due to their historic palimpsest; spatial transformations, actions of destruction, reuse of material, or continuous urban development that covers traces and changes the formal integrity and identity of a cultural heritage site. The ability to reason about a monument’s form is crucial for efficient documentation and cataloguing. This paper presents a 3D digitisation workflow through the involvement of reality capture technologies for the annotation and structure analysis of built heritage with the use of 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D CNNs) for classification purposes. The presented workflow contributes a new approach to the identification of a building’s architectural components (e.g., arch, dome) and to the study of the stylistic influences (e.g., Gothic, Byzantine) of building parts. In doing so this workflow can assist in tracking a building’s history, identifying its construction period and comparing it to other buildings of the same period. This process can contribute to educational and research activities, as well as facilitate the automated classification of datasets in digital repositories for scholarly research in digital humanities.

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    ZENODO
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    Journal of Archaeological Science Reports
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Archaeological Science Reports
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Edmond, Jennifer; Morselli, Francesca;

    PurposeThis paper proposes a new perspective on the enormous and unresolved challenge to existing practices of publication and documentation posed by the outputs of digital research projects in the humanities, where much good work is being lost due to resource or technical challenges.Design/methodology/approachThe paper documents and analyses both the existing literature on promoting sustainability for the outputs of digital humanities projects and the innovative approach of a single large-scale project.FindingsThe findings of the research presented show that sustainability planning for large-scale research projects needs to consider data and technology but also community, communications and process knowledge simultaneously. In addition, it should focus not only on a project as a collection of tangible and intangible assets, but also on the potential user base for these assets and what these users consider valuable about them.Research limitations/implicationsThe conclusions of the paper have been formulated in the context of one specific project. As such, it may amplify the specificities of this project in its results.Practical implicationsAn approach to project sustainability following the recommendations outlined in this paper would include a number of uncommon features, such as a longer development horizon, wider perspective on project results, and an audit of tacit and explicit knowledge.Social ImplicationsThese results can ultimately preserve public investment in projects.Originality/valueThis paper supplements more reductive models for project sustainability with a more holistic approach that others may learn from in mapping and sustaining user value for their projects for the medium to long terms.

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    Authors: Georgios Artopoulos; Gloria Pignatta; Mattheos Santamouris;

    Almost a century ago Modernism challenged the structure of the city and reshaped its physical space in order to, amongst other things, accommodate new transportation infrastructure and road networks proclaiming the, nowadays much-debated ‘scientificated’ pursuit of efficiency for the city. This transformation has had a great impact on the way humans still design, move in, occupy and experience the city. Today major cities in Europe, such as Paris and London, are considering banning vehicles from their historic centers. In parallel, significant effort is currently underway internationally by designers, architects, and engineers to integrate innovative technologies and sophisticated solutions for energy production, management, and storage, as well as for efficient energy consumption, into the architecture of buildings. In general, this effort seeks for new technologies and design methods (e.g., DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine; Rhicoceros3D with Grasshopper plugin and Ecotect, Radiance and EnergyPlus tools) that would enable a holistic approach to the spatial design of Near-Zero Energy buildings, so that their ecological benefits are an added value to the architectural design and a building’s visual, and material, impact on its surrounding space. The paper inquires how the integration of such technological infrastructure and performance-orientated interfaces changes yet again the structure and form of cities, and to what extent it safeguards social rights and enables equal access to common resources. Drawing from preliminary results and initial considerations of ongoing research that involve the construction of four innovative NZE settlements across Europe, in the context of the EU-funded ZERO-PLUS project, this paper discusses the integration of novel infrastructure in communal spaces of these settlements. In doing so, it contributes to the debate about smart communities and their role in the sustainable management of housing developments and settlements that are designed and developed with the concept of smart territories.

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    Authors: Georgios Artopoulos; Melinos Avrekiou; Marissia Deligiorgi; Andreas C. Andreou; +2 Authors

    One of the most widely investigated computational methods in material culture enquiry, and specifically in architecture, archaeology and built heritage, regards the application of computation for the unsupervised annotation and classification of large datasets, or big unstructured data that otherwise would require a highly laborious supervised marking and analysis process by trained and skilled experts. In many of these operations, computer vision methods are used to analyse datasets in order to annotate them, e.g., the geo-reference of series of aerial photos, or the semantic analysis of digital assets in large repositories of libraries, museums, etc. Currently, computer vision-enabled operations can successfully classify objects by high level attributes across basic level categories, e.g., a chair, vase, column (Wang 2017). Arguably, the next step in the development of these methods is their application for unsupervised semantic analysis of more complex digital representations of objects, in terms of shape, but also to classify variations of geometric configurations that belong to complex assemblages of larger scale, i.e., architecture styles of buildings. This is typically done mostly by experts who identify a building’s historic phases and components chronologically based on spatial and social context, technique of production, provenance, style and geometric or material features, e.g., colour (Historic England 2021). The application of logic and symbolic analysis through recursive mechanisms in architecture, has been used on several occasions in the past – by some researchers for plan configuration classification of historical architecture, for didactic purposes, while by others for the analysis of the unique characteristics of the design process of an architect who was prominent in the history of architecture (Steadman and Mitchell 2010; Stiny 2000). Contextualised in the field of computation analytical methods in architecture, this paper will present the development of an online 3D interface for architectural annotation of built heritage and the study of monuments and buildings (https://annfass-srv.cs.ucy.ac.cy). This 3D interface assists in identifying a building’s architectural components (e.g., arch, dome), understanding stylistic influences (e.g., Gothic, Byzantine), understanding its history, and in comparing it to other buildings of the same period. Literature in computational methods for the analysis of building features and shape analysis relies on 2D representations, e.g., images, architectural drawings, floor plans etc., but recent technological advances have allowed researchers to acquire high quality 3D data (e.g., point clouds, meshes etc.) of monuments ‘as built’, which are more informative and descriptive representations than drawings or floor plans. Wide access to digital 3D documentation and representation methods and the evolution of deep learning methods in processing 3D data have been the source of inspiration for the development of the digital interface discussed in the paper. This online 3D interface relies on deep learning, using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks, to classify the architectural stylistic influences of heritage buildings and historically complex monuments with multiple construction phases based on 3D analysis instead of 2D image-based analysis. This process can contribute to educational activities, as well as facilitate the automated classification of datasets in digital repositories for scholarly research in digital humanities. {"references": ["Historic England, 2020. Architectural Investigation, https://historicengland.org.uk/research/methods/architectural-investigation, accessed 10 March 2021.", "Steadman, P., Mitchell, L., 2010. Architectural morphospace: Mapping worlds of built forms. Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des. 37, 197\u2013220. https://doi.org/10.1068/b35102t", "Stiny, G., 2000. How to Calculate with Shapes. Cambridge MA, MIT.", "Peng-Shuai Wang, Yang Liu, Yu-Xiao Guo, Chun-Yu Sun, and Xin Tong. 2017. O-cnn: Octree-based convolutional neural networks for 3d shape analysis. ACM 1471 Transactions on Graphics, 36.", "Stathopoulou EK, Remondino F. SEMANTIC PHOTOGRAMMETRY- BOOSTING IMAGE-BASED 3D RECONSTRUCTION with SEMANTIC LABELING. In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. Copernicus Publications; 2019;42:685\u201390. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII 2-W9-685-2019", "Shalunts G. (2015) Architectural Style Classification of Building Facade Towers. In: Bebis G. et al. (eds) Advances in Visual Computing. ISVC 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9474. Springer, Cham.", "Ibrahim, Mohamed. (2011). Structuring the design studio education Crafting the projects of the beginning studio using shape grammars."]}

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    Authors: Marissia Deligiorgi; Maria Maslioukova; Melinos Averkiou; Andreas C. Andreou; +5 Authors

    Abstract Contemporary discourse points to the central role that heritage plays in the process of enabling groups of various cultural or ethnic background to strengthen their feeling of belonging and sharing in society. Safeguarding heritage is also valued highly in the priorities of the European Commission. As a result, there have been several long-term initiatives involving the digitisation, annotation and cataloguing of tangible cultural heritage in museums and collections. Specifically, for built heritage, a pressing challenge is that historical monuments such as buildings, temples, churches or city fortification infrastructures are hard to document due to their historic palimpsest; spatial transformations, actions of destruction, reuse of material, or continuous urban development that covers traces and changes the formal integrity and identity of a cultural heritage site. The ability to reason about a monument’s form is crucial for efficient documentation and cataloguing. This paper presents a 3D digitisation workflow through the involvement of reality capture technologies for the annotation and structure analysis of built heritage with the use of 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D CNNs) for classification purposes. The presented workflow contributes a new approach to the identification of a building’s architectural components (e.g., arch, dome) and to the study of the stylistic influences (e.g., Gothic, Byzantine) of building parts. In doing so this workflow can assist in tracking a building’s history, identifying its construction period and comparing it to other buildings of the same period. This process can contribute to educational and research activities, as well as facilitate the automated classification of datasets in digital repositories for scholarly research in digital humanities.

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    Journal of Archaeological Science Reports
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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